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The Crises of the 14 th Century 1300-1450. Age of sorrow and temptation, of tears, jealousy and torment, Time of exhaustion and damnation, declining to extinction, Era filled with horror and deception, lying, pride and envy,

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the crises of the 14 th century 1300 1450

The Crises of the 14th Century1300-1450

Age of sorrow and temptation, of tears, jealousy and torment,

Time of exhaustion and damnation, declining to extinction,

Era filled with horror and deception, lying, pride and envy,

Time without honor and meaning, full of life-shortening sadness.- Eustache Deschamps

legacy of the crusades 1096 ca 1272
Legacy of the Crusades 1096 – ca. 1272

1. “Re-acquaintance” with Western past2. Exposure to Eastern goods3. Accentuated political and religious rivalries4. Decline of the Byzantine Empire5. “Jihad”

hey lil fella

Hey, lil’ fella

Xenopsylla cheopis

i the black death 1347 1353
I. The Black Death 1347-1353

- bubonic, pneumonic, septicemic

a disaster in the making
A. Disaster in the making

1. Nearly all arable land taken

2. “Little” Ice Ageca. 1300 – 1700+

b legacy of the plague
B. Legacy of the plague

6, 14, 18th centuries

137M

(1/4 - 1/3 of Europe in 1300s - 34M)

slide7
2. The Great Leveler

Hans Holbein The Dance of Death

the King the Queen the Pope

slide8
2. Europe subject to invasion

Mongols - 1400s

Ottoman Turks - 1500 & 1600s

slide9
3. Plagues of insurrection- weakening of social bonds

- persecution- peasant revolt

Jacquerie1358

Wat Tyler’s Revolt1381

slide10
Crises of moral authority paves the way for Renaissance, Reformation.

The Triumph of Death 1562- Bruegel

a causes
A. Causes
  • Angevin Empire- Henry & Eleanor 1152

Vassalage v. Nation-state

2. Edward III 1329

b conduct of the war
B. Conduct of the War
  • English occupation- soldiers fend for themselves

End of Chivalry

c assault on authority
C. Assault on authority

1. Yeomen archers

- Crécy 1346 / Agincourt 1415

2. Battle of Formingy 1450- gunpowder Men in armor losing significance

slide16
3. Joan of Arc

- Battle of Orleans1429

iii division in christendom

III. Division in Christendom

Religious controversy and challenges for the Church

slide18
1. Urban social orders

- merchants, craftsmen

- “class,” not hereditary obligations

2. Alternative to feudal orders- tweaking of theology

a limits of reason
A. Limits of reason

AristotelianismScholasticism

b avignon papacy
B. Avignon Papacy

1. Clement V & Philip IV 1305

- suppression of Knights Templar

- moved papacy to Avignon

“Whore of Babylon”

slide21
2. Gregory XI1378

- Rome, most of Europe wants Italian Pope

- Charles (V) Valois

3. Great (Western) Schism 1378- 1417

- Popes a’plenty

- Council of Constance 1414-17

antiPope John XXIII

c legacy of division
C. Legacy of division

1. Worsened by contemporary problems

- papacy in the eyes of both clergy and lay people

2. Opened door for theological and literary challenges to Church hegemony

a theological challenges
A. Theological challenges

1. John Wycliffe 1320-1384

- quality of sacrament

- Church authority

slide25
2. Jan Hus 1369-1415

- religion and nationalism

- language

č š ž

slide26
3. Increased threat of Heresy

- Waldensians no authority but the Bible

- Albigensians extreme ascetism

“Heretics” often preached austerity not found in Church, popular w/ peasants

The Inquisition “what a show”

slide27
4. William of Ockham 1285-1349

- Argued against Aristotelian theory

- must argue from specific to general

Ockham’s razor

scientific method

b vernacular literature
B. Vernacular literature

1. Reliance on Latin declines

- expression of cultural, national, religious independence (Gutenberg press)

slide29
2. Dante Alighieri The Divine Comedy 1308-1321

allegory – historical figures, contemporary critique

Redemption of Man – in Italian!

“Abandon hope, all ye who enter here”

slide30
3. Geoffrey Chaucer The Canterbury Tales

1342-1400

- middle English

- ribald, low brow comedy, social satire

Wife of Bath

slide31
4. Christine de Pizan City of Ladies 1364-1430

a. status of aristocratic women

improving

b. all levels of patriarchy

challenged

slide32
Giovanni Boccaccio The Decameron

Juan Ruiz The Book of Good Love

- “Mr. Melon of the Vegetable Garden”