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  1. English accents 12. British and American English

  2. shared development until c. 1750 • thereafter: reciprocal influence, particularly since c. 1930 (talkies, radio, TV, travel) • spelling • grammar • vocabulary

  3. NO r dropping farmer ˈfɑːrmər > ˈfɑːmə > ˈfɑːrmɚ

  4. NO r dropping beer, square, north, nurse, persuade, farmer, standard bɪr, skwɛr, nɔrθ, nɝs, pɚˈsweɪd, ˈfɑrmɚ, ˈstændɚd

  5. NO BATH broadening æ → ɑː / _ [-voi +fric] bæθ → bɑːθ pass, glass, grass, staff, raft, laugh, bath, path, after, castle Compare class-classic, pass-passage. bath vs. math(s), castle vs. tassel, pass vs. gas This change was resisted in the north of England as well as in north America.

  6. pass the marmalade RP: ˈpɑːs ðə ˈmɑːməleɪd GA: ˈpæs ðə ˈmɑːrməleɪd scarf, staff, stand, command, alarmed GA: skɑrf, stæf, stænd, kəˈmænd, əˈlɑrmd

  7. LOT unrounding a bottle of Scotch ə ˈbɒtl əv ˈskɒtʃ > əˈbɑ(ː)tl əv ˈskɑ(ː)tʃ

  8. loss of distinctive length big [bɪ(ː)g] God [gɑ(ː)d] manner [ˈmæ(ː)nɚ] bother[ˈbɑ(ː)ðɚ] father [ˈfɑ(ː)ðɚ] Hello, Dali!

  9. stop and start RP: ˈstɒp ən ˈstɑːt GA: ˈstɑp ən ˈstɑrt

  10. developments before /r/ RP bɪə GA bɪr RP bɪəd GA bɪrd beer beer and beard biːr biːr biːrd bɪr bɪr bɪrd NO centring diphthongs in GenAm

  11. AmE developments before /r/ beer, beard chair, Mary more, force sure, jury biːr tʃeːr moːr ʃuːr bɪr tʃɛr mɔr ʃʊr > ʃɝ seriousˈsɪriəs nearer, mirror sharingˈʃɛrɪŋ herring

  12. AmE developments before /r/ in many varieties, æ (TRAP) and ɛ (DRESS, SQUARE) merge before /r/ merry Mary married hairy Harry ˈmɛri ˈmɛri ˈmɛrid ˈhɛri ˈhɛri