English accents 7. Historical change (ii) Innovations reflected in RP etc., but not everywhere in Britain and not in most American English
developments before /r/ RP bɪə GA bɪr RP bɪəd GA bɪrd beer beer and beard biːr biːr biːrd bɪər bɪər bɪərd bɪə bɪər bɪəd
developments before /r/ beer, beard chair, Mary more, force sure, jury biːr tʃeːr moːr ʃuːr Pre-r breaking biːər tʃeːər moːər ʃuːər Pre-schwa laxing bɪər tʃɛər mɔər ʃʊər
r dropping farmer ˈfɑːrmər > ˈfɑːmə
developments before /r/ beer, beard chair, Mary more, force sure, jury biːr tʃeːr moːr ʃuːr biːər tʃeːər moːər ʃuːər bɪər tʃɛər mɔər ʃʊər r dropping bɪə tʃɛə mɔəʃʊə resisted in rhotic accents
developments before historical /r/ beer, beard chair, Mary more, force sure, jury biːr tʃeːr moːr ʃuːr biːər tʃeːər moːər ʃuːər bɪər tʃɛər mɔər ʃʊər bɪə tʃɛə mɔəʃʊə monophthonging bɪː tʃɛː mɔː (ʃʊː)
BATH broadening æ → ɑː / _ [-voi +fric] bæθ → bɑːθ pass, glass, grass, staff, raft, laugh, bath, path, after, castle Some words resisted this change: math(s), mass, tassel, dash. Compare class-classic, pass-passage. Others were coined or borrowed later: gas. bath vs. math(s), castle vs. tassel, pass vs. gas This change was resisted in the north of England as well as in north America.
TRAP-BATH split æ → ɑː / _ n [-voi -son +cor] slænt → slɑːnt slant, grant, aunt, can't, dance, chance, answer, chancel, branch, ranch; also demand, Alexander, example Some words resisted this change: ant, cant, manse, cancer, cancel; stand, grand, ample aunt vs. ant, answer vs. cancer, example vs. ample These words also retained /æ/ in the Leeward Islands and in most of Australia.
typical southern accent TRAP æ BATH ɑː START ɑː gas, pass, farce æ ɑː ɑː typical northern accent TRAP a BATH a START aː gas, pass, farce a a aː lexical incidence: BATH words
hw > w (in educated speech in London by 1800) resisted in Scotland and Ireland and (for a time) in North America
suffix vowel weakening cemetery ˈsemɪteri → ˈsemɪtəri → ˈsemɪtri testimony ˈtestɪmoʊni → ˈtestɪməni
suffix vowel weakening Discuss necessary February ordinary
suffix vowel reduction? • The ending -ary is reverting to a strong vowel
suffix vowel stressed! • In -arily, the suffix vowel is becoming not only strong but stressed