Atomic Orbitals

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## Atomic Orbitals

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**The Bohr Model (Niels Bohr)**In 1913, Niels Bohr came up with a new model (Bohr was a student of Rutherford) He noticed that light given out when atoms were heated always had specific amounts of energy, so Niels Bohr proposed a model that electrons in an atom must be orbiting the nucleus and can reside only in fixed energy levels**Energy Levels**• Each of the electrons in Bohr’s model has a fixed amount of energy called energy levels • This is similar to steps of a ladder (can climb up the ladder, but cannot step in between the steps) • Quantum is the amount of energy required to move an electron from one energy level to another • The further away from the nucleus, the more energy the electron has**The Quantum Mechanics Model (Erwin Schrodinger)**• While Rutherford’s model described the path the electron moves, Erwin Schrodinger solved mathematical equations to describe the behavior of electron • Similar to Bohr’s model, Schrodinger describes the energy of electrons with certain values but does not involve an exact path the electron takes around the nucleus**The Quantum Mechanics View of the Atom (Schrodinger)**The quantum mechanical model does not describe the exact path an electron takes around the nucleus, but determines the probability of finding an electron in a certain area**Quantum Mechanical Model**• In this model, electrons move similar to a rotating propeller blade • You cannot tell its precise location at any instant because it’s a blurry region, but you have information regarding the probability of finding an electron within a certain volume of space • Similar to a fuzzy cloud…the probability of finding an electron is higher where the cloud is more dense**Atomic Orbitals**A region of space where electrons are likely to be located. Each energy level can be made up of sublevels, which is made of different orbitals**Draw an s orbital.**Now draw a 2s orbital. How are they different?**Draw three p orbitals.**Now, draw all three p orbitals on an x-y-z axis