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Known as the ‘power producers’ of the cell Provides energy a cell needs to move, divide, produce secretory products, contract Cellular respiration , which is the mitochondria’s main functions is: Glucose + O 2  energy +H 2 O + CO 2 Mitochondria use your fat and protein as energy sources.

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Known as the ‘power producers’ of the cell

Provides energy a cell needs to move, divide, produce secretory products, contract

Cellular respiration, which is the mitochondria’s main functions is:

Glucose + O2 energy +H2O + CO2

Mitochondria use your fat and protein as energy sources

Lindsey, Alex and Elektra

  • Kearns-Sayre syndrome: A neuromuscular disease caused by defects of the DNA in the mitochondria
  • Leads to:
  • 1. Heart disease
  • 2. Degeneration of the retina
  • 3. Progressive paralysis of certain eye muscles
nucleus nucleolus
Nucleus & Nucleolus
  • Function:
    • controls the hereditary characteristics of an organism (contains DNA)
    • Storage of proteins and RNA (ribonucleic acid) in the nucleolus
    • Production of ribosome's (protein factories) in the nucleolus
  • Structure:
    • structure of a cell nucleus consists of nuclear membrane (nuclear envelope), nucleoplasm, nucleolus and chromosomes
  • Diseases:
    • caused by viral infections, increased nucleolar activity, or simply by congenital mutations affecting the nucleolar proteins
    • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
      • Directs the HIV-1 Rev protein to the nucleus
    • Down Syndrome
      • Has an extra chromosome 21
endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Structure

-made up of a network of tubules, sacs, vessels that are interconnected

  • Function

-Protein synthesis

-Production of steroids

-Production and storage of glycogen

Scham, Mitchell, Marika

endoplasmic reticulum storage disease
Endoplasmic reticulum storage disease
  • Mutated protein caused by ingesting toxins
  • Endoplasmic reticulum creates the mutated protein which can be detrimental to the cell

Scham, Mitchell, Marika



Where are they found?

Because protein synthesis is so important to cells, there are large numbers of ribosomes found throughout cells, often numbering in the hundreds or thousands.


Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis, where RNA is translated into protein. When cells need large numbers of proteins, they must first build numerous ribosomesRibosome Shape

Ribosomes are made of two subunits; one larger and one smaller. It is made up of proteins and has a globular shape. This is so that mRNA can pass through during translation.

Amirah and Avery

Diamond-Blackfan anaemia is a condition where individuals have a low red blood cell count. Red blood cells are needed to transport oxygen round the body. It is an extremely rare condition and it is believed to be with blood cell production in the bone marrow. Scientists concluded that the condition is a ribosomal protein disease. What appears to be happening is that mutations in this gene affect protein synthesis. This affected protein plays an essential role in the manufacture of ribosomes, so loss of function will have serious knock-on effects.
golgi apparatus

Found in plant and animal cells

Composed of stacks of cisternae

Membrane bound structures

4 functional regions

Cis-Golgi network





Synthesizes different macromolecules


Related to Alzheimer's disease

Golgi Apparatus

Jamie & Abdi

lysosomes michelle sweeny danny liu

LysosomesMichelle Sweeny, Danny Liu

Found in eukaryotic cells

Main Function-hold a variety of digestive enzymes which digest excess or worn out organelles, food particles and engulfed viruses or bacteria. When food enters the cell, lysosomes break down the nutrients (this process known as autophagy). However, when deprived of nutrients the lysomes engulf surrounding organelles to absorb nutrients.

Structure- a spherical organelle that varies in size that isenclosed by a protien based membrane that seperates the remainder of the cell to be seperated by harsh acidic (pH of 4.8) digestive enzymes which are made in the endoplasmic reticulum.

Lysosomal Storage Disease- are made up of a group of about 50 metabolic disorders that result from infection in lysosomal function.


Meckel-Gruber Syndrome- inability of centrioles to migrate properly during mitosis or meiosis


Barrel-shaped cell structure

Contain microfilaments and they run throughout the cell and moves chromosomes around during mitosis and meiosis

The barrel shape helps the centrioles run throughout the cell and make it easier to move chromosomes due to the length

  • Chloroplasts are vital organelles located in eukaryotic plant cells that allows the process of photosynthesis to occur.
  • It has been proven that chloroplasts can be interconnected by tubular bridges known as stromules. Stromules are formed as extensions of the outer plant membrane. A network can be formed via stromules, allowing chloroplasts to exchange proteins throughout the organelle.

A disease related to chloroplasts can occur in tomatoe’s thylakoid (part of chloroplast cell structure). During the acclimation of the tomato leaves, a change in leaf and fruit radiance can occur over a period of several days

By Maria T, Madeleine H & Chris D

cell wall
Cell Wall
  • The wall gives cells rigidity and strength, it allows organisms to build and hold their shape. It prevents large, harmful, molecules from entering the cell. It helps to retain water in plant cells.
  • The composition, properties, and shape of the cell wall may change during the cell cycle and depend on growth conditions.
  • Some antibiotics target the bacterial cell wall to interfere with essential bacterial enzymes and this destroys the cell wall.

Will, Hannah, Allison

cell junctions

Cell Junctions

Cell junctions play an important role in maintaining the quality of tissues in multicellular organisms and some, if not all of them, are involved in signal transduction.

The tight junction, on the top right, is shaped like a wall, acting as a barrier so that material cannot pass between two interacting cells.

The gap junction, on the bottom right, has a gap between the membrane of contacting cells so that the cytoplasm of the two is connected.

Diseases: Defects in cell junctions can result in heart diseases such as cardiomyopathy, a defect in the heart muscle leading to an irregular heart beat and, eventually, muscle failure. It has also been linked to Autism and Hailey-Hailey Disease.

nerve cells

Carries information throughout the body by using nerve impulses

Axons carry information away from the body

Dendrites carry information to the body


ribosome and rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER

responsible for protein production and packaging


Golgi Apparatus

Nerve cells
Epithelial cells

Epithelial cells join together to form epithelial membranes or tissue. At times called the epithelium, these sheets cover the outer surface of the body, helping create the form the body, as well as line body cavities. The major function of epethilial tissue is to line and protect vital cells in the body. The single largest example of this is the upper layers of the skin. These are layered cells which are designed to keep the body protected from pathogens. These cells are also involved in filtration, secretion, and absorption.

Organelles in the Epithelial Cell

The structures in the Epithelial cell are the same as that of a animal cell. The Nucleus is the largest organelle in the cell. It's main responsibility is overall control and management of the cell. Next is the Endoplasmic Reticulum, which synthesizes fatty acids and phospholipids, and the proteins of the plasma membrane. Lysosomes are in charge of the destruction of obsolete parts of the cell

bone cells
Bone Cells
  • There are four different kinds of bone cells:-Osteogenic Cells: responsible for trauma response -Osteoblasts: responsible for bone repair, and bone formation-Osterocytes: maintain metabolism plus waste exchange through the blood-Osteoclasts: recycling bone material

Scham, Mitchell, Marika

bone cells important organelles in the cell
Bone Cells-Important organelles in the cell
  • Lots of rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus

Scham, Mitchell, Marika

red blood cells
Also known as ‘erythrocytes’

They’re ovular shaped for max. surface area (SA)

It is the most abundant blood cell in the body

Transport O2, CO2, nutrients and waste in the blood throughout the body

Red Blood Cells

Sickle Cell Anemia

  • Red blood cells form an abnormal crescent shape caused by abnormal type of hemoglobin
  • Shape limits the amount of O2 provided to the body
  • Genetic
  • Some symptoms include: fever, fatigue, rapid heart rate chest pains and paleness

Lindsey, Alex and Elektra

white blood cells

Lysosomes - helps white blood cells digest unwanted bacteria and viruses.

Neucleus – The “brain” of the cell, helps it perform its function properly.\


No definite shape, irregular, bumpy, white spheres (most common)

Larger compared to other cells

Their large shape allows them to easily digest smaller invading bacteria.

White Blood Cells
striated muscle cells michelle sweeny danny liu
Striated Muscle Cells Michelle Sweeny, Danny Liu

Main Function- One of three major muscle types. Made up of individual muscle fibers, controls heat regulation, movement, support and muscle tone (also known as skeletal muscle). It is also responsible for maintaining the posture stabilizing the joints and producing body heat by muscle function.

Structure- It is composed

by many small fibers which are

formed from even smaller mono

nucleated cells.

The muscle has a striated pattern,

which results from abundances of

certain types of protein present

in the muscle.

cardiac muscle cells

Found in heart

Cells are joined end-to-end

Each cell has a single nucleus


Responsible for pumping blood through the heart chambers into the blood vessels

Important Organelles

Intercellular junction called “Intercalated disc”


Cardiac muscle cells

Jamie & Abdi

  • A type of tissue that transports sugars in vascular plants
  • Plays a minor role in structural support
  • Since the phloem extends throughout the entire plant sugars can be transported easily
  • Related Organelles: Sieve tube cells-no nucleus, thin cytoplasm, and few organelles

Companion cells- contains a nucleus, organelles and very dense cytoplasm full of nutrients.

Will, Hannah, Allison


The long treachery elements that transport water are the most distinctive elements that can be found in xylem cells. Tracheids and vessel elements are recognized by the spots that appear on inner and outer walls of the vessel. The connection between these vessel elements are referred to as vessels.


The tubular structure of the xylem aids in its main function; transporting water and mineral nutrients from the roots throughout the plant. It also allows water flow back to replenish plants after they undergo both photosynthesis and transpiration.

  • Xylem is commonly found in:
  • in the roots of woody and non-woody plants
  • vascular plants
  • i.e. ferns, clubmosses and flowering plants

By Maria T, Madeleine H & Chris D

parenchyma cells

Parenchyma Cells

Parenchyma cells are thin-walled cells of the ground tissue that make up the bulk of majority of nonwoody structures, but sometimes their cell walls can be lignified. Parenchyma cells in the middle of the epidermis and pericycle in a root or shoot constitute the cortex, and are used for storage of food.