Table of Contents • Background, definition of information literacy • Information seeking strategies (Google generation) • Information literacy & higher education • Instructional concepts • Exercises • Note: this module focuses on information literacy for health professionals in academic, research, and clinical settings. It does not address information literacy for the general public (patient education and consumer health) .
Key Resources • Seven Faces of Information Literacy : Towards inviting students into new experiences. Christine Bruce, Queensland University of Technology (Brisbane, Australia), 2003 http://www.bestlibrary.org/digital/files/bruce.pdf • ACRL Information Literacy Website, Association of College and Research Libraries (Chicago, U.S.) http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/issues/infolit/ • Information Behavior Researcher of the Future, University College London (U.K.) January 2008 • http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/reppres/ggworkpackageii.pdf
Hierarchy of Literacy • • Alphabetic literacy – writing name • • Functional literacy – reading and writing • • Social literacy – communication in a cultural context • • Information literacy – critical location, evaluation and use of information • • Digital information literacy –application of information literacy in the digital environment • Caroline Stern (2002) Information literacy unplugged: teaching information literacy without technology. White paper prepared for UNESCO, the US NCLIS and National Forum for Information Literacy. http://www.nclis.gov/libinter/
UNESCO/Prague Declaration 2003 • ‘Information Literacy encompasses knowledge of one’s information concerns and needs, and the ability to identify, locate, evaluate, organize, and effectively create, use, and communicate information to address issues or problems at hand; it is a prerequisite for participating effectively in the Information Society, and is part of the basic human right of life long learning… • Information Literacy, in conjunction with access to essential information and effective use of information and communication technologies, plays a leading role in reducing the inequities within and among countries and peoples.’ • http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/files/19636/11228863531PragueDeclaration.pdf/PragueDeclaration.pdf
Basic Definition • ‘Information literacy is knowing when and why you need information, where to find it, and how to evaluate, use,and communicate it in an ethical manner.’ • Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals, UK http://www.informationliteracy.org.uk/Information_literacy_definitions/Definitions.aspx
Is Information Literacy the Same as Computer Literacy? • No, an information literate person is one who has developed an effective information-gathering style • Information literacy goes beyond the skills used to manipulate computer databases • It involves decision-making about the appropriate information sources to use and judgments about the validity and relevancy of information
The Google Generation • ‘Most students entering our colleges and universities today are younger than the microcomputer, are more comfortable working on a keyboard than writing in a spiral notebook, and are happier reading from a computer screen than from paper in hand. Constant connectivity – being in touch with friends and family at any time and any place - is of utmost importance.’ • Information Behavior of the Researcher of the Future…
• 89 percent of college students use search engines to begin an information search (while only 2 per cent start from a library web site) • • 93 per cent are satisfied or very satisfied with their overall experience of using a search engine (compared with 84 per cent for a librarian-assisted search) • • Search engines fit college students’ life styles better than physical or online libraries and that fit is `almost perfect’ • • College students still use the library, but they are using it less (and reading less) since they first began using Internet research tools • College Students’ Perceptions of the Libraries and Information Resources: A Report to the OCLC Membership. Dublin, OH:OCLC, 2006 http://www.oclc.org/reports/perceptionscollege.htm
New Research Style • Not only students’ information seeking has been fundamentally shaped by massive digital choices, unbelievable (24/7) access to scholarly material and search engines. • Same environment has impacted on professors, lecturers, researchersand health practitioners. • All groups use new styles of information seeking. • College Students’ Perceptions…
Characteristics of Digital Information Seeking • Horizontal information seeking – users view one or two pages of a site, then bounce to another site,and often never return. • Navigation – considerable time spent infinding their way around; often as much time as actually viewing information. • Viewing time – at a specific site is short (4-8 minutes); often ‘power browse’ through title, contents page, and abstracts
Squirreling behavior – save material by downloading; unclear if ever read. • Checking information seekers – users access authority quickly by cross checking across different sites and relying on favorite tools (e.g. Google). • College Students’ Perceptions…
Importance of Information Literacy • Critical in environment of rapid technological change and proliferating information resources. • Users are faced with diverse, abundant information choices - in their academic studies, in the workplace, and in their personal lives. • Information comes to individuals in unfiltered formats, raising questions about its authenticity, validity, and reliability. • Information is available through multiple media, including graphical, aural, and textual formats.
Characteristics of Information Literate User • Determines the nature and extent of the information needed. • Accesses needed information effectively and efficiently. • Evaluates information and its sources critically; incorporates selected information into his or her knowledge base and value system. • Uses information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose. • Understands the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information; accesses and uses information ethically and legally. • http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/issues/infolit/standards/stnd5/index.cfm
Lifelong learning • Information literacy forms the basis for lifelong learning. • Is common to all disciplines, to all learning environments, and to all levels of education. • American Library Association… • Is strongly connected with critical and reflective thinking. • Seven Faces…
Information Literacy in Academia • Gives the user the skills to know when he or she needs information and where to locate it more efficiently. • Includes the technological skills needed to use the modern library as a gateway to information. • Enables users to analyze and evaluate the information, thus giving the user confidence in using that material to make a informed decision. • http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/issues/infolit/overview/intro/index.cfm
Information Professionals’ and Scholars’ Views of Information Literacy • • user acquires: • mental models of information systems • • a set of skills • • a combination of information and IT skills • • a process/way of learning • • ways of experiencing information use • Seven Faces…
Information Literacy in Higher Education - Strategies • Include information competencies as a graduation requirement. • Include information literacy into the curricula of academic institutions. • Faculty need to be trained and integrated into program as they can provide information literacy learning experiences in their classes. • Instruction can take a variety of forms: stand-alone courses or classes, online tutorials, workbooks, course-related instruction, or course-integrated instruction. • Information Literacy, Plotnick, Eric. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology January 1999 http://www.ericdigests.org/1999-4/information.htm
Instruction options • Course-related instruction • focuses on the students taking a course, and teaches aspects of library use and the resources needed to accomplish the assignments for the course. • supports the objectives of the course but does not constitute an integral part of them.
Course-integrated instruction • teaches the use of the library and the library resources as an integral part of the objectives of the course. • is considered essential for the student to learn and be tested on both their understanding of the course concepts and their ability to successfully complete library-related assignments.
Learning outcomes • specific measurable achievement, a unit of what instructor expects a student to learn from the material we are teaching. • Resource-based learning • method of teaching and learning that requires the student to explore a topic by finding information in numerous and varied sources of information. • http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/issues/infolit/overview/intro/index.cfm
Course Design Issues • Staff and students bring particular skills and values to the idea of information literacy and its programs • Individuals and stakeholder groups see or experience information literacy differently • • How might this influence information literacy politics, curriculum design, relationships between teachers, librarians, and students?
Collaborative Effort • For successful development of information literacy skills, program must • incorporate information literacy across curricula in all programs and services. • include support by the administration of the university, and • require the collaborative efforts of faculty, librarians, and administrators. • ALA…
Role of Libraries • Information literacy model requires positive change in the instructional mission of the library. • Library's expanded instructional role emphasizes information-seeking behavior within the context of an information need. • Librarians and support staff are uniquely qualified to support and teach information literacy skills – for lifelong learning and critical thinking. • Information Literacy: An Overview Robin Angeley and Jeff Purdue May 2000 http://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/dialogue/issue6.html
Role of the University • ‘To embrace a successful across-the-curriculum information literacy model, a close collaboration of faculty, librarians, and administrators is necessary, with essential support needed from the higher administrative levels’. • Information Literacy…
Summary Information Literacy Project, Philadelphia University, 2009nfolit/http://www.philau.edu/infolit/definition.htm
Academic Perspective • ‘In order to support the use of primary scientific information resources, the use of full-text articles should be encouraged in the medical curriculum. Additionally, student skills in searching references from databases, and reading full-text articles should be improved with a revised training program. The level of basic PC skills does not seem to be an important factor in students' use of electronic scientific resources.’ • A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students. Kalle Romanov and Matti Aarnio BMC Medical Education 2006, 6:28. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6920/6/28
Student Perspective • ‘I now understand that education is about being empowered to learn rather than about being dependent on the teacher for acquiring knowledge and skills.’ • Seven Faces…
Broad Perspective • ‘Information literacy is not a discrete set of skills, but rather a way of learning. Research leads me to conclude that information literacy is an appreciation of the complex ways of interacting with information. It is a way of thinking and reasoning about aspects of subject matter.’ • Information literacy research: dimensions of the emerging collective consciousness Christine Bruce, Queensland University of Technology http://www.anziil.org/resources/papers/archive/bruce/1_multipart_xF8FF_2_AARLsub.pdf
Exercises – individual experience • How do you use information seeking skills in your work environment and everyday life? • • Remember the details of a time when you used this process effectively. • • What is your picture of an effective information user ( or information literate person)? • • Think about your experience of being ( or trying to be) an information literate person. What did you do? Was it easy? What do you struggle with?
Exercises – institutional level • In your environment, how is information literacy integrated in your activities? • Is it integrated between units (e.g. library, academic discipline, research groups, clinical wards)? • How could it be better integrated? • What information literacy activities would you add? • Which groups would benefit?
What is the role of administration? • How could this role be enhanced? • What aspects of the institutional culture impact on information literacy needs? (positively and negatively) • • What would you do to foster a better culture? • Updated 03 2010