Part II Splanchnology Chapter 7URINARY SYSTEM
Ⅰ. General Description: * Constituents: two kidneys, two ureters, one urinary bladder, a single urethra. * Function: 1. It excretes waste products in the form of urine (such as urea and uric acid, excess water and some inorganic salts), so as to regulate the balance of the internal environment of the body. 2. The kidney also has the endocrine function. kidney ureter urinary bladder urethra
Ⅱ.Kidney • Position: in retroperitonealspace, • both side of spinal column • upper end lower end • left T11 L2 • rightT12 L3 T11 T12 L1 L2 L3
Relation: anteriorly— • left: stomach, spleen, pancreas, left colic flexure • right: liver, right colic flexure, descending part of duodenum Relation of the kidney: anterior view
Relation:Posteriorly---- • 12th rib, • subcostal nerve, • iliohypogastric nerve, • ilioinguinal nerve, • quadratus lumborum • Superiorly---- • suprarenal gland • Medially---- • renal pelvis, • lumbar sympathetic trunk • left: abdominal aorta • right: inferior vena cava
External Features of kidney • two extremities • two surfaces • two borders • Renal hilum • Renal pedicles: (the relation • of the main structures): • from anterior to posterior--- • renal vein, renal artery, renal pelvis • from superior to inferior--- • renal artery, renal vein, renal pelvis • Renal sinus: • minor renal calyx, • major renal calyx, • renal pelvis, • renal artery and its branches, • renal vein and its tributaries, • nerves and lymphatics, etc.
Deformity of kidney 1. Normal kidney 2. Muitivesicular kidney 3. Horseshoe kidney 12 3
The structures • ---Parenchyma: • peripheral part-- • renal cortex; • center part---- • renal medulla • renal pyramid • renal papilla • papillary foramen • renal column • ---Renal sinus: • minor and major calices, • renal pelvis • renal artery and its branches, • renal vein and its tributaries, • nerves and lymphatics, etc. Coronary section of kidney:posterior view Renal glomeruli Renal tubules
The coverings of the kidney Sagittal section Horizontal section from outside to inside---- renal fascia, adipose capsule, and fibrous capsule
Blood vessels and segments of kidney: ---Renal a. ---anterior and posterior trunks---5 segmental aa. ---5 segments: superior segment, superior-anterior segment, inferior-anterior segment, inferior segment, posterior segament sup. sup. sup. and ant. post. inf. and ant. inf. inf.