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PART TWO SPLANCHNOLOGY
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PART TWO SPLANCHNOLOGY

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  1. PART TWO SPLANCHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION (概述) THE ALIMENTARY SYSTEM (消化) THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM(呼吸) THE URINARY SYSTEM (泌尿) THE GENITAL SYSTEM (生殖) THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (内分泌) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  2. Chapter 1INTRODUCTION A. Viscera: 1. Alimentary (digestive) system(消化系统) 2. Respiratory system(呼吸系统) 3. Urinary system(泌尿系统) 4. Genital (reproductive) system(生殖系统) 5. Endocrine system(内分泌系统) B. Functions: 1. To fulfil the metabolism(履行代谢) 2. Maintain the life of the species(延续种族) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  3. C. General Structure of the Viscera 1.The tubular viscus(中空性器官) 1) mucous membrane (mucosa) (粘膜) 2) submucosa (粘膜下层) 3) muscular coats (肌层) 4) adventitia (serosa) (外膜) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  4. C. General Structure of the Viscera 2.The parenchymatous organ(实质性器官) hilum (porta) (门) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  5. D. The Reference Line of the Thorax (胸部标志线) 1. anterior median line (前正中线) 2. sternal line (胸骨线) 3. parasternal line (胸骨旁线) 4. midclavicular line (锁骨中线) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  6. D. The Reference Line of the Thorax (胸部标志线) 5. anterior axillary line (腋前线) 6. middle axillary line (腋中线) 7. posterior axillary line (腋后线) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  7. D. The Reference Line of the Thorax (胸部标志线) 8. scapular line (肩胛线) 9. posterior median line (后正中线) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  8. E. The Abdominal Regions(腹部分区) Rt. hypochon- driac region 右季肋区 Epigastric region 腹上区 Lt hypochon- driac region 左季肋区 Right lateral region 右外侧区 Umbilical region 脐区 Left lateral region 左外侧区 Right iliac region 右髂区 Hypogastric region 腹下区 Left iliac region 左髂区 Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  9. Chapter 2ALIMENTARY (DIGESTIVE ) SYSTEM A. Division 1. Alimentary canal (消化管): 1) upper alimentary canal (上消化管): mouth to duodenum(口 - 十二指肠) 2) lower alimentary canal (下消化管) jejunum to anus(空肠 - 肛门) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  10. ALIMENTARY (DIGESTIVE ) SYSTEM 2. The alimentary glands(消化腺): salivary glands (唾液腺) liver (肝) pancreas (胰) B. Functions 1. ingestion(摄入) of food 2. absorption(吸收) of the nutrient components (proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water) 3. defecation(排便) : the elimination of indigestible substances from the body via the anus in the form of feces. Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  11. Section 1 Oral Cavity A. The Oral Vestibule (口腔前庭) B. The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  12. A. The Oral Vestibule (口腔前庭) 1. Oral lips(口唇): 1) upper lip(上唇): philtrum(人中) frenulum of upper lip(上唇系带) [first aid acupoint 急救穴位] [cleft lip (hare lip) 唇裂] 2) lower lip(下唇) frenulum of lower lip(下唇系带) 2. Nasolabial sulcus (鼻唇沟) 3. Cheek(颊) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  13. The Oral Vestibule (口腔前庭) 1. The palate (腭) 1) hard palate (硬腭) 2) soft palate (软腭) a. uvula (腭垂) b. palatine velum (腭帆) c. palatoglossal arch (腭舌弓) d. palatopharyngeal arch (腭咽弓) [cleft of palate 腭裂] e. isthmus of fauces (咽峡) [sopor酣睡] [apnea 呼吸暂停] Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  14. B. The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔) 2. Theteeth (dentes) (牙) 1)Composition a. crown of tooth (牙冠) b. neck of tooth (牙颈) c. root of tooth (牙根) d. dental cavity (pulp cavity) (牙腔) e. root canal (牙根管) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  15. The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔) 2) Classification of the teeth (牙齿分类) a. deciduous teeth(乳牙) 20 Eruption (萌出): from 6th to 24 m. b. permanent teeth(恒牙) 32 Eruption (萌出): from 6th to 21 yrs. Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  16. The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔) i. incisive (切牙) deciduous teeth 2, permanent teeth2 ii. canine (尖牙) deciduous tooth 1, permanent tooth 1 iii. premolar (前磨牙) permanent teeth2 iv. molars (磨牙) deciduous teeth 2, permanent teeth 3 乳牙 牙式 I-V 恒牙 牙式 1 - 8 Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  17. The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔) 3)Structure of the teeth a. dentine (牙本质) b. enamel (釉质) c. cement (牙骨质) d. dental pulp (牙髓) e. periodontal membrane (牙周膜) f. alveolar bone (牙槽) g. gingiva (牙龈) [caries 龋齿] [determination of age 年龄鉴定] [gum bleeding 牙龈出血] Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  18. The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  19. The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔) 3. The tongue (舌) 1)Division a. apex of tongue (舌尖) b. body of tongue (舌体) c. root of tongue (舌根) d. dorsum of tongue (舌背) i. terminal sulcus (界沟) ii. foramen cecum of tongue(舌盲孔) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  20. The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔) 2)Lingual mucousmembrane(舌粘膜) a. papillae of tongue (舌乳头) i. filiform papillae (丝状乳头) ii. fungiform papillae (菌状乳头)taste iii. foliate papillae (叶状乳头)taste iv. vallate papillae (轮廓乳头) taste Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  21. The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔) b. lingual tonsil (舌扁桃体) c. septum of tongue (舌中隔) d. frenulum of tongue (舌系带) e. sublingual caruncle (舌下阜) f. sublingual fold (舌下襞) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  22. The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔) 3) Muscles of tongue(舌肌) a.extrinsic muscles(舌外肌)  i. Genioglossus (颏舌肌) origin: mental spine insertion: tongue & hyoid bone action: protrudes tongue Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  23. The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔) ii. Hyoglossus (舌骨舌肌) origin: hyoid bone insertion: tongue action:retracts tongue iii. Styloglossus (茎突舌肌) origin: styloid process insertion: tongue action:retracts tongue Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  24. The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔) b.proper (intrinsic) muscles(舌固有肌) i. superior longitudinal m. (上纵肌) ii. inferior longitudinal m. (下纵肌) iii. transverse m. of tongue (舌横肌) iv. vertical m. of tongue (舌垂直肌) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  25. The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔) 4.The oral glands(口腔腺) 1)Major salivary glands(大唾液腺) a. parotid gland (腮腺): only serous cells. parotid duct oral vestibule next to the upper M2 Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  26. The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔) b. sublingual gland(舌下腺) mostly mucous cells 10 – 12 ducts  sublingual fold c. submandibular gland(下颌下腺) duct sublingual caruncle Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  27. The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔) 2)Minor salivary glands (小唾液腺) i. palatine gland (腭腺) ii. buccal gland (颊腺) iii. labial gland (唇腺) iv. lingual gland (舌腺) Saliva(唾液): 1000-1500ml/d pH 6.75 – 7.00 [mumps 流行性腮腺炎] Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  28. Section 2 The Pharynx A.Division (分部) 1.Nasopharynx(鼻咽) 1) pharyngeal opening of auditory tube (咽鼓管咽口) 2) tubal torus (咽鼓管圆枕) 3) pharyngeal recess (咽隐窝) [nasopharyngeal carcinoma 鼻咽癌] Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  29. The Pharynx 2.Oropharynx(口咽)  1) palatine tonsil (腭扁桃体) [tonsillitis 扁桃体炎] [hypertrophy 扁桃体肥大] 2) tonsillar crypts (扁桃体窝) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  30. The Pharynx 3. Laryngopharynx (喉咽) 1) piriform recess (梨状隐窝) [foreign body 异物] 2) aperture of larynx (喉口) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  31. The Pharynx B. Muscles of pharynx (咽肌) 1. Constrictors of pharynx (咽缩肌): a.superior constrictors b. middle constrictors c. inferior constrictors 2. Stylopharyngeus (茎突咽肌) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  32. Section 3The Esophagus A. Division (分部) 1. Cervical part (颈部) 2. Thoracic part (胸部) 3. Abdominal part (腹部) B. Location(位置) mainly in mediastinum from lower border of C6 to vertebral body of T11 Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  33. The Esophagus C.Constrictions (狭窄) 1. Commencement (开始部)15cm 2. Crossed by left bronchus (跨左支气管) 25cm 3. Pass through diaphragm (穿膈处)40cm [esophageal carcinoma食管癌] Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  34. Section 4 The Stomach A.Location: left hypochondraic region (左季肋区) & epigastric region (腹上区) [gastroptosis 胃下垂] Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  35. The Stomach B.External Feature 1.Cardiac opening(贲门) 2.Pyloric opening(幽门) 3.Cardiac part(贲门部) 4.Pyloric part(幽门部) 1) pyloric antrum (幽门窦) 2) pyloric canal (幽门管) function: gastric emptying(排空) 5.Greater curvature (胃大弯) 6.Lesser curvature (胃小弯) angular incisure (角切迹) 7.Body of stomach (胃体) 8.Fundus of stomach (胃底) X-film: magenblase (胃泡) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  36. The Stomach C. Structure of the Gastric Wall 1. Serous membrane (浆膜层) 2. Muscular coats (肌层): external layer: longitudinal middlelayer: circular pyloric sphincter(幽门括约肌) internallayer: oblique 3. Submucosa (粘膜下层) 4. Mucosa(粘膜): pyloric valve(幽门瓣) gastric area(胃区) gastric pit(胃小凹) [gastritis 胃炎] [gastric ulcer 胃溃疡] [stomach perforation 胃穿孔] [gastric carcinoma 胃癌] Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  37. The Stomach C. Structure of the Gastric Wall [gastritis 胃炎] [gastric polyp 胃息肉] [gastric ulcer 胃溃疡] [stomach perforation 胃穿孔] [gastric carcinoma 胃癌] Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  38. Section 5 The Small Intestine A.The Duodenum (十二指肠) 1. Superior part (上部): duodenal bulb (十二指肠球) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  39. The Small Intestine 2. Descending part (降部): 1) superior duodenal flexure (上曲) 2) major duodenal papilla (大乳头) 3) minor duodenal papilla (小乳头) 4) longitudinal fold of duodenum(纵襞) [biliary ascariasis 胆道蛔虫病] Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  40. The Small Intestine 3. Horizontal part (水平部): inferior duodenal flexure (下曲) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  41. The Small Intestine 4. Ascending part (升部): 1) duodenojejunal flexure (十二指肠空肠曲) 2) suspensory muscle of duodenum (十二指肠悬肌) (ligament of Treitz) [ landmark of gastro-jejunostomy 胃空肠吻合术标志] Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  42. The Small Intestine B . Jejunum (空肠): anterior 2/5 solitary lymphatic follicles (孤立淋巴滤泡) circular folds (环状襞) 10 mm high intestinal villi (肠绒毛) [enteritis 肠炎] microvilli (微绒毛)[parasitosis 寄生虫病] function: 1. Digestion: secrets intestinal juice 1-2L/d, pH 7.6 2. Absorption: glucose, amino acid, glycerin. Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  43. The Small Intestine C.Ileum (回肠):posterior 3/5 Aggregated lymphatic follicles (集合淋巴滤泡) [typhoid complicated with intestinal perforation 肠伤寒穿孔] [Meckel diverticulum 美克尔憩室] Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  44. The Small Intestine Characteristics Jejunum Ileum Diameter 2-4 cm 2.5-3 cm Wall thick, heavy thin, light Vascularity greater less Color deeper red paler pink Arteriae rectae (直动脉) tall short Arcades large loops, few short loops, many Fat in mesentery less more Circular folds well developed rudimentary Intestinal villi high, concentrated short, scattered Aggregated lymphatic follicles none or few many The distinguishing characteristics of the jejunum and ileum. Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  45. Section 6The Large Intestine 1.5 m long and 6.5 cm in diameter A.Structural Characteristics (结构特征) 1. Colic bands (结肠带)semilunar folds (半月瓣) 2. Haustra of colon (结肠袋) 3. Epiploic appendices (肠脂垂) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  46. The Large Intestine B.The Caecum (cecum) (盲肠) 1. Ileocecal valve (回盲瓣) [intussusception 肠套迭] Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  47. The Large Intestine C.The Vermiform Appendix (阑尾) 1. anterior ileal position (回肠前位) 28.0% 2. posterior ileal position (回肠后位) 8.3% 3. pelvic position (盆位) 26.1% 4. subcecal position (盲肠下位) 6.1% 5. retrocecal position (盲肠后位) 24.0% [appendicitis 阑尾炎] [appendectomy 阑尾切除术] [appendicular perforation 阑尾穿孔] Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  48. The Large Intestine D.Ascending colon (升结肠): right (hepatic) colic flexure (结肠右曲) E.Transverse colon (横结肠): left (splenic) colic flexure (结肠左曲) F.Descending colon(降结肠) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  49. The Large Intestine G.Sigmoid colon (乙状结肠) [volvulus 肠扭转] Function of colons: 1.absorbing water (吸收水) 2. eliminating as feces (排粪) 3. fermenting cellulose (分解纤维素) 4. synthesizing vitamin (合成维生素) vitamin B complex, vitamin K Bacillus coli (结肠杆菌) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity

  50. The Large Intestine H.Rectum (直肠) 1. External feature: 1) ampulla of rectum (直肠壶腹) 2) sacral flexure (骶曲) 3) perineal flexure (会阴曲) Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity