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Plate Tectonics Review. Earth’s Structure. Lithosphere : rigid, outer crust of the earth Rocks are less dense, more rigid than those in asthenosphere Sial : continental crust. Less dense than oceanic crust. Granite most common type of rock

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earth s structure
Earth’s Structure
  • Lithosphere: rigid, outer crust of the earth
  • Rocks are less dense, more rigid than those in asthenosphere
  • Sial: continental crust. Less dense than oceanic crust. Granite most common type ofrock
  • Sima: oceanic crust. More dense the continental crust
earth s structure1
Earth’s Structure
  • Mesosphere: the mantle. Extends from bottom of lithsphere to about 2900km below. 83% of earth’s volme Mostly made of periotite.
  • Mohorovicic Discontinuity (moho): boundary between lithsphere and mantle
  • Asthenosphere: weak, partly molten layer in upper mantle. Where convection currents are present
earth s structure2
Earth’s Structure
  • Centrosphere (core):
  • Outer core: made of iron & nickel, permanently molten
  • Inner core: solid ball of iron and nickel. Pressure is so great it cannot melt.
isostasy
Isostasy
  • The idea that a solid shell of basaltic sima (ocean crust) surrounds the earth and the sial (continental crust) floats
  • The sial is therefore always adjusting position
  • Isostasy= continental movement
continental drift
Continental Drift
  • Pangaea, proposed by German Alfred Wegener, was original super continent – broke up into current continents
  • Evidence to support continental drift:
  • 1. coastline fit (continents fit like puzzle)
  • 2. geologic fit (similar age landforms and rocks on opposite continents)
  • 3. paleoclimatology (evidence of past similar climates)
  • 4. fossil correlation ( matching fossils found on opposite continents)
plate tectonics
Plate Tectonics
  • The idea that rigid plates are traveling on a zone in the upper mantle, pushed by convection currents in the asthenosphere
  • Three types of movement:
  • 1. Divergence (plates move apart)
  • 2. convergence (plates come together)
  • 3. transform (plates slide past each other)
divergence
Divergence
  • Between the two plates, new land forms – this is the youngest land
  • Found almost always on ocean floor – boundaries are called mid-ocean ridges or rift zones
  • The new land formation is also called sea floor spreading- as plates move, magma pushes up from asthenosphere & solidifies
divergence1
Divergence
  • A mid-ocean ridge does not always run in a straight line, but can be in segments
  • A crack can appear between the ocean floor of one section of the ridge
  • At this crack, plates move horizontally- these become transform faults
divergence2
Divergence
  • African Rift Valley- the greatest continental crack in the Earth’s crust. Runs from Turkey through eastern Africa
  • New land is created at rate of a few centimetres a year
convergence
Convergence
  • convergence- when 2 plates of different density move toward each other
  • Eventually, one will be forced down under the other (the most dense plate)
  • Because ocean plates are more dense, they dive down into the mantle
  • Where this land is “reclaimed” is known as the subduction zone
convergence1
Convergence
  • The area of collision between two plates is often marked by an ocean trench, as the diving plate pulls down the edge of the plate is it diving under
  • This type of boundary is sometimes called a destructive plate boundary
convergence2
Convergence
  • If both colliding plates are oceanic, they are of the same density and neither wants to dive down
  • Eventually, one will be forced down but some material makes its way back to the surface and forms volcanic islands called island arcs
convergence3
Convergence
  • When both plates are light continental plates, they can buckle upwards to form fold mountains
  • Eg. Himalyan and Rocky Mountains
  • Fossils of ocean creatures can be found in these mountains because they used to be ocean floor
subduction zone
Subduction Zone
  • Ocean trench: when 2 plates of different density collide, the denser plate pulls the leading edge of the less dense plate
  • Continental shelf: flat areas that extend from the shoreline and drop off at the trench
  • Continental slope: the steep drop off from the shelf into the trench
  • Benioff zone: the point where a subducting plate descends into the mantle
  • Convection currents: circular movement of material caused by heating and cooling
transform boundaries
Transform Boundaries
  • Transform boundary- when two plates slide horizontally past each others
  • There’s great friction- sometimes the plates get stuck, then suddenly slide, resulting in a major earthquake
  • Eg. San Andreas Fault
surface deformation
Surface Deformation
  • Compression (pushing together) and tension (pulling apart) important in folding and faulting of rock
  • Tension stretches and thins rock- creates normal faults
  • Compression pushes rock layers together and causes folding
surface deformation1
Surface Deformation
  • Upfolds are called anticlines, downfolds are synclines
  • Folding is the dominant process in forming mountain ranges – known as fold mountains
surface deformation2
Surface Deformation
  • Rocks respond to stress in 3 ways:
  • 1. brittle fracture (rock breaks)
  • 2. Elastic deformation (slow steady stress causes bending or folding, but when stress is released, rock returns to original form)
  • 3. ductile deformation (slow steady stress over a long period- when stress released, rock is permanently deformed)
  • Fractures more common at the surface, folds more common deep in the earth- more pressure and higher temps.
composition of lithosphere
Composition of Lithosphere
  • Three main types of rock: igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
  • Igneous: when molten lava hardens to form rock. Extrusive if it makes it to the surface, intrusive if it does not reach the surface
    • Most igneous rocks found in the ocean are basalts and gabbros- heavy & dark
    • Most igneous rocks found on the continents are andesite and granite- less dense and light colour
composition of the lithosphere
Composition of the Lithosphere
  • Sedimentary rocks-when igneous rock is eroded by water, wind, and ice it becomes small particles called sediment
  • Sediment is transported to low lying areas and over time, layers form and compact to form sedimentary rock
  • Metamorphic rock- created through heat, pressure, and chemicals on other rock types (marble, slate, quartzite). Often in mountains.
the rock cycle
The Rock Cycle
  • All rocks are made by either melting, weathering, or compaction of particles.
hot springs and geysers
Hot Springs and Geysers
  • Commonly seen in volcanic regions where magma is close to the surface
  • Hot springs: Surface water that infiltrated the ground comes in contact with the magma and heats - If it can find a route to the surface, it can emerge and still be hot
hot springs and geysers1
Hot Springs and Geysers
  • Geysers are similar, but the fault line/channel that carries water to the surface has an obstruction
  • The obstruction allows water to pool and become VERY hot, creating steam, which creates enough pressure to forcefully expel the water
  • Hot water has many dissolved minerals, and areas around geysers often have layers of mineral deposits
  • How a Geyser Works
earthquakes
Earthquakes
  • When stress-deformed rocks break or shift, earthquakes happen
  • The shaking is caused by seismic waves, which originate where the fracture or shift occurred
  • The exact point where the fracture/shift happened is the focus
  • The focus can vary in depth- the closer to the surface, the stronger it is
  • The point on the surface above the focus is the epicentre
  • The distance between the focus and epicentre is the focal depth
earthquakes1
Earthquakes
  • As plates move, pressure is put on them and cracks or faults form
  • These faults can become stuck for a long time, and as rock deforms, the pressure becomes too great and the rock suddenly moves, releasing the energy in waves- known as isostatic rebound
  • Earthquakes can also be caused by underground movement of magma (eg. volcano)
  • When land masses sink or rise due to weight adjustments, earthquakes can occur (isostatic readjustment)
  • California Earthquake
earthquakes2
Earthquakes
  • Earthquakes usually occur along fault lines
  • Instruments that record earthquakes are called seismographs
  • Earthquakes are measured using the Richter Magnitude Scale- each number on the Richter Scale represents a magnitude of 10x larger than the previous number (eg. 7 earthquake is 10x larger than 6, and 100x larger than a 5)
  • Earthquake Footage
earthquakes3
Earthquakes
  • Three kinds of waves caused by earthquakes:
  • Primary wave- compression wave- travels by compressing and expanding the ground. Moves the fastest
  • Secondary/shear wave-slower, moves in side to side motion
  • Surface wave- when primary and secondary waves reach the surface- like ripples on water- responsible for ground shaking
  • P & S Waves
earthquakes4
Earthquakes
  • Common earthquake hazards:
  • Fire
  • Landslides
  • Liquefaction
  • Tsunamis (eg. Indonesia 2004, Japan 2010)
  • What causes a tsunami??
volcanism
Volcanism
  • Types:
  • Fissure eruption- fissure= crack in the lithosphere, from which molten volcanic rock can spew
  • Fissure Eruption
  • When basaltic lava cools it tends to fracture in cylindrical columns creating what is known as columnar joining
volcanism1
Volcanism
  • Shield Volcanoes: occur predominantly on ocean floors- gentle slopes & can be kilometres in diameter. Made of fluid basaltic lava (violent eruptions do not occur- fluid lava like wet concrete)
  • How Shield Volcanoes Form
volcanism2
Volcanism
  • Cinder Cone Volcanoes: found on continents, steep sides, violent eruptions. Trapped gases cause explosions. The violently erupted material is called pyroclastics.
  • How Cinder Cone Volcanoes Form
volcanism3
Volcanism
  • Composite volcanoes (andesitic volcanoes): erupt different materials at different times. Built up in layers of lava and ash. Symmetrical, often snow and ice capped (like those around the ring of fire). Violent, sudden eruptions.
  • The heat from these can cause lahars (mudflows) from melted snow/ice
  • How Composite Volcanoes Form
volcanism4
Volcanism
  • Hot spots: volcanic activity that takes place in the middle of a tectonic plate. Super heated plume in the asthenosphere
  • Pressure keeps the area from melting completely, but it is ten percent molten- called the plastic zone
  • Hotspots tend to create shield cones
  • Hawaii Hot Spot
volcanism5
Volcanism
  • Volcanic features:
  • Dike- the rock layer through which magma moves fractures and creates a dike
  • Sill- when rock intrudes between rock layers but cannot penetrate them
  • Laccolith- pooling of magma between rock layers
  • Volcanic neck- when layers of soil are eroded away from an ancient volcano
  • batholith- when magma pushes up from the mantle- can form great mountain ranges
volcanism6
Volcanism
  • Lava: igneous rock that has reached the surface
  • Pyroclastics: any material blasted out of a volcano (cinder, ash, gases, rocks...)
  • Caldera: volcanic crater formed when magma empties from chamber OR when the top of the volcano blows off
  • Lahar: volcanic mudflows
  • NueesArdentes: superheated pyroclastics, denser than air, 1000+ degrees- destroy everything in its path
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