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Making PBIS Work: History, Science, & New Directions. George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut Nov 3 2011 www.pbis.org www.scalingup.org www.cber.org. PURPOSE

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making pbis work history science new directions

Making PBIS Work: History, Science, & New Directions

George Sugai

OSEP Center on PBIS

Center for Behavioral Education & Research

University of Connecticut

Nov 3 2011

www.pbis.orgwww.scalingup.orgwww.cber.org

slide2

PURPOSE

Describe & link considerations from 15+ years of PBIS implementation to future directions

  • Keynote overview: All
  • Follow-up: Administrators, coordinators, coaches, trainers, evaluators
  • Coaching: Administrators, coordinators, coaches, trainers, evaluators
slide4

9

Considerations

slide8

Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence (2001)

  • Coordinated Social Emotional & Learning (Greenberg et al., 2003)
  • Center for Study & Prevention of Violence (2006)
  • White House Conference on School Violence (2006)

VIOLENCE PREVENTION

teaching academics behaviors

DEFINE

Simply

ADJUST for

Efficiency

MONITOR &

ACKNOWLEDGE

Continuously

MODEL

PRACTICE

In Setting

57

Teaching Academics & Behaviors
slide12

2. NATURAL CONTEXT

1. SOCIAL SKILL

Expectations

3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES

nc positive behavior support initiative

Bob Algozzine

NC Positive Behavior Support Initiative

Schools w/ Low ODRs & High Academic Outcomes

Proportion of Students Meeting State Academic Standard

Office Discipline Referrals per 100 Students

PBIS in North Carolina

academic behavior connection
Academic-Behavior Connection

“Viewed as outcomes, achievement and behavior are related; viewed as causes of each other, achievement and behavior are unrelated. In this context, teaching behavior as relentlessly as we teach reading or other academic content is the ultimate act of prevention, promise, and power underlying PBS and other preventive interventions in America’s schools.”

Algozzine, Wang, & Violette (2011), p. 16.

Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between academic achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, 3-16.

Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, 15-25.

McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, 146-154.

McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Dickey, C. R., and Braun, D. H. (2008). Reading skills and function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, 131-147.

Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 53-62.

Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104, 100-109.

if outcome is implementation fidelity avoid t rain hope pd

REACT to

Problem

Behavior

WAIT for

New

Problem

Expect, But

HOPE for

Implementation

Select &

ADD

Practice

Hire EXPERT

to Train

Practice

34

If outcome is implementation fidelity, avoid “train & hope” PD.
slide18

Integrated

Elements

Supporting Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

OUTCOMES

15

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior

general implementation process getting started

Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started”

Agreements

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation

slide24

Tertiary Prevention:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

FEW

~5%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~15%

SOME

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

23

ALL

~80% of Students

slide25

23

Continuum of Support for ALL

Few

Some

All

Dec 7, 2007

slide26

Continuum of Support for ALL

“Theora”

Math

Science

Spanish

Reading

Soc skills

Soc Studies

Basketball

Label behavior…not people

Dec 7, 2007

slide27

Continuum of Support for ALL:

“Molcom”

Anger man.

Prob Sol.

Ind. play

Adult rel.

Self-assess

Attend.

Coop play

Peer interac

Label behavior…not people

Dec 7, 2007

responsiveness to intervention

Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • High Intensity
  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • Intense, durable procedures
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Universal Interventions
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive
  • Universal Interventions
  • All settings, all students
  • Preventive, proactive
Responsiveness to Intervention

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

1-5%

1-5%

5-10%

5-10%

80-90%

80-90%

Circa 1996

slide29

23

Behavior Continuum

Academic Continuum

RTI

Integrated Continuum

Mar 10 2010

slide30

ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS

  • TERTIARY PREVENTION
  • Function-based support
  • Wraparound
  • Person-centered planning
  • TERTIARY PREVENTION

~5%

~15%

  • SECONDARY PREVENTION
  • Check in/out
  • Targeted social skills instruction
  • Peer-based supports
  • Social skills club
  • SECONDARY PREVENTION
  • PRIMARY PREVENTION
  • Teach SW expectations
  • Proactive SW discipline
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Effective instruction
  • Parent engagement
  • PRIMARY PREVENTION

~80% of Students

slide32

Maximum Student Benefits

Fixsen & Blase, 2009

slide33

Start

w/

What Works

Focus on Fidelity

Detrich, Keyworth, & States (2007). J. Evid.-based Prac. in Sch.

slide34

Integrated

Elements

Supporting Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

OUTCOMES

15

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior

slide35

Basic “Logic”

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Implementation Fidelity

Maximum Student Outcomes

Training

+

Coaching

+

Evaluation

predictable work environments are places where employees buckingham coffman 2002 gallup

1 million workers, 80,000 managers, 400 companies

Predictable work environments are places where employees(Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup)

1. Know what is expected

2. Have materials & equipment to do job correctly

3. Receive recognition each week for good work.

4. Have supervisor who cares, & pays attention

5. Receive encouragement to contribute & improve

6. Can identify person at work who is “best friend.”

7. Feel mission of organization makes them feel like their jobs are important

8. See people around them committed to doing good job

9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better)

10. Have opportunity to do their job well.

predictable work environments are places where educators students family members etc

1 million workers, 80,000 managers, 400 companies

Predictable work environments are places where educators, students, family members, etc….

1. Know what is expected

2. Have curriculum & instruction to do job correctly

3. Receive recognition for demonstrating expectations.

4. Have teacher/parent/principal who cares, & pays attention

5. Receive encouragement to contribute & improve

6. Can identify someone who they can relate to.”

7. Feel mission of classroom/school makes them feel like their efforts are important

8. See students/teachers/principals around them committed to doing good job

9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better)

10. Have opportunity to do their learning/teaching well.

to receive positive ratings on previous managers must do 4 things well
To receive positive ratings on previous, managers must do 4 things well:

Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup

school leadership contributing factors on student learning
School leadership & contributing factors on student learning.

Student/ Family Background

School Conditions

School Leadership

Teachers

Classroom Conditions

Louis, Leithwood, Wahlstrom, & Anderson (2010).

effective leaders engage in actions or behaviors establish working conditions that
Effective leaders engage in actions or behaviors & establish working conditions that:

Sugai, Horner, & Lewis, in press

slide46

Sample Teaming Matrix

Are outcomes measurable?

slide49

17

SWPBS

Practices

School-wide

Classroom

  • Smallest #
  • Evidence-based
  • Biggest, durable effect

Family

Non-classroom

Student &

Family

slide50

2. NATURAL CONTEXT

1. SOCIAL SKILL

Expectations

3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES

teaching matrix activity
Teaching Matrix Activity

Classroom

Lunchroom

Bus

Hallway

Assembly

Respect Others

  • Use inside voice
  • ________
  • Eat your own food
  • __________
  • Stay in your seat
  • _________
  • Stay to right
  • _________
  • Arrive on time to speaker
  • __________

Respect Environment & Property

  • Recycle paper
  • _________
  • Return trays
  • __________
  • Keep feet on floor
  • __________
  • Put trash in cans
  • _________
  • Take litter with you
  • __________

Respect Yourself

  • Do your best
  • __________
  • Wash your hands
  • __________
  • Be at stop on time
  • __________
  • Use your words
  • __________
  • Listen to speaker
  • __________

Respect Learning

  • Have materials ready
  • __________
  • Eat balanced diet
  • __________
  • Go directly from bus to class
  • __________
  • Go directly to class
  • __________
  • Discuss topic in class w/ others
  • __________
slide52

1. SOCIAL SKILL

2. NATURAL CONTEXT

3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES

slide53

1. SOCIAL SKILL

2. NATURAL CONTEXT

Expectations

3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES

rct group design pbis studies
RCT & Group Design PBIS Studies
  • Reduced major disciplinary infractions
  • Improvements in academic achievement
  • Enhanced perception of organizational health & safety
  • Improved school climate
  • Reductions in teacher reported bullying behavior & peer rejection

Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C. W., Thornton, L. A., & Leaf, P. J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115

Bradshaw,C. P., Koth, C. W., Bevans, K. B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473.

Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148.

Bradshaw, C. P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K. B., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26.

Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145.

Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14.

Waasdorp, T. E., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (in press). The impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) on bullying and peer rejection: A randomized controlled effectiveness trial.