Cultural diffusion . The process of spreading cultural traits from one place to another. Cultures change at different speeds across time and place. Can move in real space and cyber space . Cultural diffusion is facilitated by: . Migration
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Cultural diffusion • The process of spreading cultural traits from one place to another. • Cultures change at different speeds across time and place. • Can move in real space and cyber space
Cultural diffusion is facilitated by: • Migration • Spread of news, ideas, fashions through mass media, trade and travel • Growth of global brands – McDonalds, Coca Cola/ • Internet – mass communication • Increased transport. Facilitates spread of people and products.
Globalisation on cultural landscapes related to the connectedness of that landscape to global networks • Places that have been bypassed by globalised cultural flows can be referred to as ‘black holes’.
Explain how migration and the spread of empires could facilitate cultural diffusion Country of migrant destination Migrants bring cultural traits Country of migrant origin Migrants pick up cultures from destination Flows occur through visits home, Permanent moves home Communication via phone, letter, ICT and sending goods home.
Large migration rates to the UK and other Western European countries has led to the formation of diaspora populations • Growing cultural hybridity – cultures that are intermixed
Outcomes: • Shops and goods to provide for migrants e.g. Polish food shops in Tunbridge wells • Places of worship catering for a variety of languages (Catholic churches offer weekend mass in Polish) • High birth rates – more children with English as a second language / bilingual children
Growth in all regions especially Middle East and Asia. • Africa tourism rose by 6% between 2000-2007 • Large scale tourism results in varying degrees of cultural diffusion • Some destinations – only enclaves are affected. Others, the impacts are more widespread.
Head office of tour operators, airline, hotel chains Britton’s enclave model of tourism International tourist flows controlled by countries in the core Tourist flows controlled by international / national firms in the periphery Tourist industry offices in capital city Tourist flows to the marginal tourist areas in the periphery Attraction Resort enclave Resort enclave Resort enclave Attraction Attraction Attraction Attraction
Traditional cultures of many communities in the developing world have suffered because of the development of tourism • Loss of locally owned land • Abandoned values and practices by local people • Displacement to make way for tourist developments • Alcoholism and drug abuse as they become available for tourists • Increased crime and prostitution e.g. ‘sex tourism’ an issue in some places (Bangkok) • Loss of affordable housing as visitors buy second homes.
Describe the role of TNCs and the media in spreading consumer culture What are your favourite brands? Key terms: Consumer culture Mass media Cultural commodification Brand image Brand identity Consumer wants and needs
TNCs Seeking to increase: Sales Market share Global Spread Media Creating successful product images Transforming ‘wants’ into ‘needs’ Identifying ‘target’ consumer groups Consumers Accept or reject product presentations Having needs satisfied
Image and identity • Brand image - the consumer perceptions about the brand • Brand identity – everything the company wants the brand to be seen as: features, attributes, benefits, performance, quality….. Advertising and marketing tries to achieve correlation between brand image and identity.