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The Skeletal System. - Functions - . Protection of Organs – the brain in the skull, the heart, lungs, liver etc., in the ribcage. Storage of Mineral Salts – are large percentage of bone is made from Calcium and Phosphorus, which can be both stored and released from bone tissue.

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the skeletal system
The Skeletal System

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

functions
- Functions -
  • Protection of Organs – the brain in the skull, the heart, lungs, liver etc., in the ribcage.
  • Storage of Mineral Salts – are large percentage of bone is made from Calcium and Phosphorus, which can be both stored and released from bone tissue.
  • Support gives the body shape and provides structure of muscle to work against.

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

functions3
- Functions -
  • Movement – the skeleton provides the structure for muscles to pull against and shorten, creating movement.

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

functions4
- Functions -
  • Production of Red Blood Cells – Red Blood Cells are produced in the bone marrow

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

types of bone
- Types of Bone -
  • Long Bones – have a diaphysis (shaft) and epiphysis (growth plate – the bones of the limbs in particular)
  • e.g. the bones of the limbs – humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula.
  • Ribs, Phalanges, Metacarpals and Metatarsals.
  • The femur is the largest bone in the body.

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

types of bone6
- Types of Bone -
  • Short Bones – bones of the hands and feet, i.e. the carpal (hand) and tarsal (foot) bones.
  • They have no shaft and are as long as they are wide.

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

types of bone7
- Types of Bone -
  • Flat Bones – the bones of the skull (excluding the mandible), the ilium (pelvis), and scapula.

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

types of bone8
- Types of Bone -
  • Sesamoid Bones –
  • Bones that are wrapped in tendon or connective tissue
  • The patella (knee-cap)

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

types of bone9
- Types of Bone -
  • Irregular bones – “one of a kind” bones
  • The spinal column is comprised of 30 irregular bones – no two are exactly the same shape.
  • 7 Cervical12 Thoracic5 Lumbar5 Sacral (fused)Coccyx

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

homework
Homework
  • Complete SKELETAL SYSTEM WORKSHEET 1

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

vertebral column
- Vertebral Column -
  • Each vertebra has a hollow centre through which travels the spinal cord, which control conscious movement of the body.
  • The vertebra increase in size as they descend from cervical to lumbar region. This helps support the weight of the body.

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

vertebral column12
- Vertebral Column -
  • Movement between two vertebrae is very limited, but,
  • The range of movement of the vertebral column as a whole is great, allowing bending and twisting.
  • The vertebral column also provides the central structure for the maintenance of good posture.

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

epiphyseal plates
- Epiphyseal Plates -
  • Aka Growth Plates are centres for bone growth.
  • They are found at the end of the Diaphysis (shaft) of long bones.
  • These bones are visible under X-ray and may be damaged in injury.

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

dietary influence
- Dietary Influence -
  • Vitamin A – Important for optimal bone development and tooth formation.Sources of vitamin A are liver, kidneys, milk fat, egg yolks and dark green and yellow vegetables.
  • Vitamin C – Important for collagen production which provides bones with strength and helps to bind calcium and phosphorus to bone to form compact bone.Sources of Vitamin C are citrus fruits and all types of vegetables.

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

homework15
Homework

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

dietary influence16
- Dietary Influence -
  • Vitamin D – Influences the rate of growth in developing bones and promotes calcium absorption from the digestive tract.
  • Sources of Vitamin D are milk, fish-liver oils and sunlight
  • Vitamin D deficiency = Rickets

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

dietary influence17
- Dietary Influence -
  • Calcium – helps create bone rigidity.
  • The stores of calcium in bones fluctuate with body’s general demand for this important mineral.
  • Calcium is required for other bodily functions such as muscular contraction and the operation of the nervous system
  • Skeletal supplies rise and fall depending on bodily needs and dietary intake.

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

physical activity skeletal health
- Physical Activity & Skeletal Health -
  • Positive weight-bearing activities (i.e. running /jumping) have been linked with healthy rates of bone growth in length and width.
  • This correlation is evident in active versus inactive children.

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

physical activity skeletal health19
- Physical Activity & Skeletal Health -
  • Lower bone densities become particularly evident in ageing females, for whom osteoporosis is a problem.
  • Low-level resistance training for women in older age groups has proven to help reduce the chances and severity of osteoporosis.

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education

physical activity skeletal health20
- Physical Activity & Skeletal Health -
  • Overtraining – can result in bone damage e.g. stress fractures in distance runners’ feet, or the limbs of footballers who have excessive training regimes.
  • Heavy Load, High Intensity, Low Repetition resistance training can damage the epiphyseal plates in growing bones.

Maribyrnong Secondary College Physical Education