Energy The balloon was filled with Hydrogen . Along with Oxygen, the contents of the balloon combined to form water. The energy stored in the balloon is ALL chemical What forms of energy did this transform into? Heat , Mechanical, Radiant, Sound
L.o.C.o.E. The amount of energy we started with is more than equal to less than the amount we ended with.
L.o.C.o.E • Energy cannot be Created! • Energy cannot be Destroyed! • Energy can ONLY be Transformed! • This simple set of statements is called the Law of Conservation of Energy. • When any energy is transformed, heatis always released.
THE BASICS: • Energy can be measured with two basic units: Caloriesand Joules • Energy can be found in two (2)different TYPES! • POTENTIAL ENERGY: stored • KINETIC ENERGY: moving
THE BASICS: • Energy is found in 7different FORMS! • Most energy forms can be found as both types. • Some cannot be stored by themselves, only transformed into from other forms.
CHEMICAL ENERGY: • Chemical energy is stored in chemical bonds • Plants use a process called photosynthesisto store the sun’s energy as sugars in fruits and roots. • CO2 + Water + ENERGY→ Sugar + Oxygen gas • The plant takes in the raw materials of CO2and waterand then uses the sun’s radiant energy to “glue” them together.
CHEMICAL ENERGY: • Chemical energy is used when bondsare broken. • We eat the sugar and use the energy to make chemicals that we need to live. This is called respiration Sugar + Oxygen gas → CO2 + Water + ENERGY • The amount of Calories in our food can be determined by burning the food in a calorimeter
HEAT ENERGY: • Heat occurs whenever particles collide • Two things happen when heat is added to particles speed upand spread out • The average speed of particles is called temperature
HEAT ENERGY: • Heat ALWAYS travels from HOTto COLD until temperatures are the same. • “Cold” refers to something that has less heatthan something else. • When something gets “cold”, heat is being removed
HEAT ENERGY: • Conduction- direct contact with temperature differences • Convection- circulation within a fluid (liquids and gases ) • Radiation- an electromagnetic wave called INFRARED.
ELECTRICAL ENERGY: • Electricity is usually stored as chemical energy. • One chemical gives electrons; the other takes electrons. • Static electricity can occur when there is a buildup of electrons. • Opposite charges attract • Like charges repel
ELECTRICAL ENERGY: • The balloon has been rubbed on your hair. Draw the charges you would find on the balloon and the wall. Wall
ELECTRICAL ENERGY: • Two balloons have been rubbed on your head. Draw their interaction in the space below.
ELECTRICAL ENERGY: • You place your hand on the Van de Graaf generator. Draw your hair AND the charges you would predict.
ELECTRICAL ENERGY: • Electricity refers to the flow of electrons • A circuit must be closed (completed) for electrons to flow. • There are two types of circuits series and parallel
ELECTRICAL ENERGY: • SERIES CIRCUIT • Shares the voltage • Adding a light makes all of them dimmer • One goes out…they all go out
ELECTRICAL ENERGY: • PARALLEL CIRCUIT • All receive maximum voltage • Adding a light changes nothing • One goes out…the rest stay on
ELECTRICAL ENERGY: • Voltage (Volts): electrical pressure (the umpf behind the electrons) Amperage (Amps): the frequency of electrons
MECHANICAL ENERGY: • Also called gravitational potential energy: P.E. = mgh P.E. = mass X gravity X height kg m/s2 m
MECHANICAL ENERGY: • Kinetic Energy – The energy of motion K.E. = ½ mv2 K.E. = ½mass X velocity2 kg m/s
NUCLEAR ENERGY: Nuclear energy holds the nucleus together. It would love to fly apart!
NUCLEAR ENERGY: Nuclear fission is when the nucleus of large atoms is split.