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Communication in Organisations. BSBCMN205A Use Business Technology Session Session 2. Select and Use Technology. Session Outcome. From this session students will to use workspace, furniture & equipment to suit the ergonomic requirements of the user.

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Communication in organisations

Communication in Organisations

BSBCMN205A Use Business Technology Session

Session 2

Select and Use Technology

Session outcome
Session Outcome

From this session students will to use workspace, furniture & equipment to suit the ergonomic requirements of the user.

Technology should be used according to organizational requirements in a way which promotes a safe work environment.



For the ergonomic slides I am indebted to

Raylene M. Blandino M.S., PA-C

Ergonomics what is it
ERGONOMICS-What is it?

  • Derived from two Greek words:

  • “Nomoi” meaning natural laws

  • “Ergon” meaning work

  • Hence, ergonomists study human

    capabilities in relationship to work



  • As early as 18th century doctors noted that workers who required to maintain body positions for long periods of time developed musculoskeletal problems.

  • Within last 20 years research has clearly established connections between certain job tasks and RSI or MSD.

Communication in organisations

What two elements are at work?

  • Static work: musculoskeletal effort required to hold a certain position, even a comfortable one.

    Example: sit & work at computers; keeping head and torso upright requires small or great amounts of static work depending on the efficiency of the body positions we chose.

Elements at work cont
Elements at work (cont)

  • Force: amount of tension our muscles generate

    Example: tilting your head forward or backward from a neutral, vertical position quadruples the amount of force acting on your lower neck vertebrae

  • Increased force is d/t increase in muscular tension needed to support head in a tilted position

3 main ergonomic principles
3 Main Ergonomic Principles:

  • Work activities should permit worker to adopt several different healthy and safe postures.

  • Muscle forces should be done by the largest appropriate muscle groups available

  • Work activities s/b performed with joints at about mid-point of their ROM (esp. head,trunk,UE)

Communication in organisations


  • The average person working at a keyboard can perform 50,000 to 200,000 keystrokes a day

  • Overexertion, falls & RMI are the most common cause of workplace injury

  • An average of 125,000 back injuries due to improper lifting each year.

  • Muscles overuse results in tiny tears in the muscles and scarring; these contribute to inflammation and muscle stiffness

A bit of anatomy
A Bit of Anatomy !!

  • Overuse and small repetitive movements ie: CTD, RSI, MSD disturb balance of muscles, tendons, ligaments and nerves

  • Brachial plexus: nerve group that supply muscles and skin of UE, course down side of front of neck and become median, ulnar and radial nerves.

  • Nerves send signals to muscles to contract

  • When nerve compressed feel sensation somewhere b/w point of compression and fingertips

What causes nerve compression or entrapment
What causes Nerve Compression or Entrapment?

  • Repeated motions

  • Tight muscles

  • Inflammation of surrounding tissues

  • Misalignment of the nerve

What are 4 common nerve injuries
What are 4 Common Nerve injuries?

  • Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: brachial plexus compression d/t muscle tightness side of neck from poor head position or slumped posture.

    S/Sx: numbness/tingling in hand, made worse w/overhead activities or cradling phone b/w ear and shoulder

Nerve injuries cont
Nerve injuries (cont)

  • Radial tunnel syndrome: compressed radial nerve @ outside of elbow d/t repetitive wrist & finger extension or turning of forearm

    S/Sx: Sensations from elbow to base of thumb w/ wrist weakness a common sx

Nerve injuries cont1
Nerve injuries (cont)

  • Cubital tunnel syndrome: ulnar nerve compression inside of the elbow d/t repetitive bending of elbow or resting your elbow on a hard surface

    S/Sx: numbness or tingling and inside of arm w/ tingling to ring & little fingers

Nerve injuries cont2
Nerve injuries (cont)

  • Carpal tunnel syndrome: compression of median nerve at level of carpal tunnel

    Where is carpal tunnel? Formed @ wrist by ligament over the carpal bones in hand

    S/Sx: numbness or tingling in thumb, index, or middle finger & ½ of ring finger; often awakened @ night by hand “falling asleep”

    Sx increased by driving or attempting to hold objects; dropping objects is a common complaint

Tendons and tendonitis
Tendons and Tendonitis

  • Tendons are connective tissue that attach muscle to bone; have little stretch or rebound

  • Tendon overuse, static or prolonged position=inflammation or tendonitis

  • Tendons of wrist & hand very small; @ high risk for injury w/ overuse

  • “Tennis elbow” or lateral epicondylitis affects finger extensor tendons outside of elbow

  • “Golfer’s elbow” or medical epicondylitis affects finger flexor tendons inside of elbow

What to do
What to do ??

  • Warm up & stretch before activities that are repetitive, static or prolonged

  • Take frequent breaks from ANY sustained posture every 20-30 minutes

  • Respect pain- positions or stop painful activity

  • Recognize early signs of inflammatory process, & tx early


Communication in organisations

Maintain Neutral Posture

  • Maintain erect position of back& neck w/ shoulders relaxed

  • Position equipment & work directly in front of and close to your major tasks

  • Keep upper arms close to the body, elbows 90-100 degrees

  • Keep feet flat on floor, upper body weight resting on “sits bones”

  • Wrists as neutral as possible; safe zone for wrist movement is 15 degrees in all directions

Communication in organisations

You talking to me?

  • Avoid bending neck forward for prolonged periods of time (*remember quadruple the force); use a copy holder

  • Avoid static positions for prolonged time; muscles fatigue---MOVE to circulation!

Modify tasks
Modify Tasks:

  • Alternate activities frequently; rotate heavy &/or repetitive tasks w/ lighter less repetitive ones.

  • If sx become worse REASSESS task setup & look for alternative methods

  • Avoid repetitive or prolonged grip activities

  • Avoid pinching w/ wrist in flexion or wrist deviation (bending to side)

  • Take frequent breaks to stretch & rest hands

Communication in organisations

Body Mechanics

  • Use the largest joints & muscles to do the job

  • Use 2 hands to lift rather than one, even with light objects and tasks.

  • Avoid lifting w/ the forearm in full pronation (palm down) or supination (palm up)

  • Slide or push & pull objects instead of lifting

  • Keep reaching to a minimum

  • Carry objects close to body at waist level

Communication in organisations


Communication in organisations

Practice Wellness at Work and Home !







Communication in organisations




Communication in organisations

Equal Opportunity

  • In Australia national and local laws cover equal employment opportunity and anti-discrimination in the workplace.

  • All employers are required by these laws to create a workplace free from discrimination and harassment.

  • It’s important that you, as an employer, understand your rights and responsibilities under human rights and anti-discrimination law in Australia.

Equal opportunity 2
Equal Opportunity - 2

  • By putting effective anti-discrimination and anti-harassment procedures in place in your business you can improve productivity and increase efficiency.

  • The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) has a range of fact sheets and brochures to help you develop effective policies and best practice guidelines.

Equal opportunity 3
Equal Opportunity - 3

  • Legislation

  • Anti-discrimination provisions are contained in a number of federal Acts, including the:

  • Racial Discrimination Act 1975

  • Sex Discrimination Act 1984

  • Disability Discrimination Act 1992

  • Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act 1986. The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission administers these Acts.

Equal opportunity 4
Equal Opportunity - 4

  • What to do...

  • Read about your employer responsibilities on the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission website.

  • Check the HREOC publication list for useful information.  

  • Refer to the Workplace website for information on avoiding discrimination in employment.

  • Find out about equal opportunity and anti-discrimination in your state or territory.

  • See:

Workplace relations act 1996
Workplace Relations Act 1996

  • The importance of preventing discrimination is also stressed in the principal objects of the Workplace Relations Act 1996 (Cwth), which refers to respecting and valuing the diversity of the workforce by helping to prevent and eliminate discrimination on the basis of race, colour, sex, sexual preference, age, disability, marital status, family responsibilities, pregnancy, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin.

Anti discrimination legislation
Anti-Discrimination Legislation

  • All states and territories have some form of anti-discrimination legislation, which generally covers the same areas as the federal legislation.

  • In some states there may be other types of discrimination added to those listed above.

  • For example, in Western Australia it is unlawful to discriminate against someone because of a spent criminal conviction.

Federal vs state legislation
Federal vs. State Legislation

  • Federal legislation allows state legislation to remain valid and the state legislation operates in a way that does not affect the operation of the federal legislation.

Who do i turn to
Who do I turn to?

  • Employees who suffer discrimination may apply to the federal Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission or a State tribunal such as the WA Equal Opportunity Act.

  • After one tribunal deals with an employee’s complaint, another tribunal cannot deal with it a second time.


Western australia equal opportunity act 1984 wa
Western Australia Equal Opportunity Act 1984 (WA)

Grounds of unlawful discrimination

  • Sex, sexual orientation, marital status, pregnancy, race, religious or political conviction, age, racial harassment, impairment, family responsibility or family status, gender history.

  • Other unlawful conduct

  • Sexual harassment; racial harassment.

Western australia equal opportunity act 1984 wa 2
Western Australia Equal Opportunity Act 1984 (WA) -2

  • Areas covered

  • Employment; partnerships; professional or trade organisations; qualifying bodies; employment agencies; applicants and employees and commission agents; application forms; advertisements; education; access to places and vehicles; provision of good services and facilities; accommodation; clubs; land.

Western australia equal opportunity act 1984 wa 3
Western Australia Equal Opportunity Act 1984 (WA) -3

Process for decision making

  • Complaint must be in writing to the Commissioner for Equal Opportunity.

  • It is then assessed and if within jurisdiction is investigated and conciliation attempted.

  • If unsuccessful, the matter is referred to the Equal Opportunity Tribunal for hearing and legally enforceable determination .

Occupational health safety
Occupational Health & Safety

  • You can find a copy of that Act here:


  • For the Worksafe site (WA) see:


  • The office safety page can be found at:


  • This includes topics such as “Do visual display units affect your eyesight?” and “How much space should there be behind a desk?”

Computer security
Computer security

  • It’s a system of safeguards designed to protect a computer system and data from deliberate or accidental damage or access by unauthorized persons.

  • The simplest is example is the logon procedure, requiring the user to enter an ID and password recognised by the system.

Three main security issues with data that needs to be protected
Three main security issues with data that needs to be protected

  • Unauthorised disclosure of Information

  • Unauthorised modification of Information

  • Unauthorised withholding of Information

Security tips

  • 1. Use protection software "anti-virus software" and keep it up to date.

  • 2. Don't open unknown, unscanned or unexpected email attachements.

  • 3. Use hard-to-guess passwords.

  • 4. Protect your computer from Internet intruders -- use "firewalls".

  • 5. Don't share access to your computers with strangers. Learn about file sharing risks.

Security tips continued
SECURITY TIPS continued.. protected

  • 7. Back up your computer data.

  • 8. Disconnect from the Internet when not in use.

  • 9. Regularly download security protection update "patches".

  • 10. Check your security on a regular basis. Understand the risks and use measures to minimize your exposure.

  • 11. Share security tips with family members, co-workers and friends.

What to be done
What to be done!! protected

  • Secured Waste

  • Passwords

  • Internal controls

  • Auditor checks

Microsoft operating system auto update
Microsoft Operating System Auto Update protected

  • Routinely run the Microsoft System Update Service or selecting the option to have the update service run automatically.

Communication in organisations

To enable Microsoft Auto Update (Windows NT, 2000, XP): protected

On the taskbar at the bottom of your screen, click Start, Settings, and then click Control Panel.

Open Automatic Updates.

Select the auto update solution that works best for you. **Your computer must be on and connected to the internet to use Microsoft’s automatic update feature

Securing your computer basics passwords and system accounts
Securing Your Computer-Basics protectedPasswords and System Accounts

  • Protect System and User accounts

    • Disable GUEST

    • Disable or delete unused accounts

    • Rename Administrator account

    • Use strong passwords on all accounts

    • NEVER use blank passwords

    • Disable auto-login setup on your system

Securing your computer basics passwords and system accounts1
Securing Your Computer-Basics protectedPasswords and System Accounts

  • To manage accounts: Right Click “My Computer”, choose “Manage”

Securing your computer more advanced
Securing Your Computer-More Advanced protected

  • Turn On Auditing

    • Control Panel>Performance and Maintenance>Administrative Tools>Local Security Policy

Continued.. protected

Securing your computer more advanced1
Securing Your Computer-More Advanced protected

  • Turn off Simple File Sharing

    • Click Start>My Computer>Tools>Folder Options>View

Continued.. protected

Common security attacks and their countermeasures
Common security attacks and their countermeasures protected

  • Finding a way into the network

    • Firewalls

  • TCP hijacking

    • IPSec

  • Packet sniffing

    • Encryption (HTTPS)

  • Social problems

    • Education

Firewalls protected

  • A firewall is like a castle with a drawbridge

    • Only one point of access into the network

    • This can be good or bad

  • Can be hardware or software

    • Ex. Some routers come with firewall functionality

    • Unix systems, Windows XP and Mac OS X have built in firewalls


Internet protected


Web server, email server, dbms server etc





What does a firewall do
What does a firewall do? protected

  • A firewall examines all traffic routed between the two networks to see if it meets certain criteria

Who needs a firewall
Who needs a firewall? protected

  • Anyone who is responsible for a private network that is connected to a public network needs firewall protection

Benefits of a firewall
Benefits of a firewall protected

  • Firewalls allow network administrators to offer access to specific types of Internet services to selected LAN users

Firewalls protected

Tcp attacks
TCP Attacks protected

  • Recall how IP works…

    • End hosts create IP packets and routers process them purely based on destination address alone

  • Problem: End hosts may lie about other fields which do not affect delivery

    • Source address – host may trick destination into believing that the packet is from a trusted source

      • Especially applications which use IP addresses as a simple authentication method

      • Solution – use better authentication methods

Virus vs worm
Virus vs. Worm protected

  • A virus stays on your computer and your computer only.

  • Worms crawl through networks.

  • Unlike a worm, a virus cannot infect other computers withoutassistance. It is spread via trading programs with others (file sharing programs, email).

Spyware vs adware
Spyware vs. Adware protected

  • Symptoms: Sluggish Pc, Increased pop-ups, homepage changes, strange search results.

  • Both are data miners, meaning they are looking for information. Both cause the above symptoms.

Continued… protected

  • Can lead to identity theft.

  • 9 out of 10 pc’s are infected.

  • Good place to look for info?

Spyware removal
Spyware Removal protected

  • You can try to do it manually- but is often very difficult.

  • Often it can disrupt major computer processes.

  • You can check out the following free programs:

    • AdAware

    • SpySweeper (both versions, free&pay)

      NOTE: Please be careful when downloading these tools, some programs claim to remove spyware, but instead, come with their own spyware embedded.

Antivirus programs
Antivirus Programs protected

  • Norton and McAffee come with many new computers for trial periods.

  • After your “trial period” it will prompt you to buy the program. What you are paying for is to stay updated on virus definitions (meaning the # of viruses your antivirus is able to detect). If you don’t stay up-to-date, then your ability to ward off viruses and remove them becomes limited.

Hacking tools
Hacking Tools protected

  • Back Orifice 2000

  • NetBus PRO

  • SUb7

  • Netcat

  • Shed.exe

Basic uncluttering steps
Basic “Uncluttering” Steps protected

  • Every web page you visit leaves its mark. Go to Control Panel  Internet Options Then delete cookies, Temporary Internet Files, and History. This will keep your machine “fresh”.

Social problems
Social Problems protected

  • Fun Example 1:

    • “Hi, I’m your TELSTRA representative, I’m stuck on a pole. I need you to punch a bunch of buttons for me”

Social problems1
Social Problems protected

  • Fun Example 2:

    • Someone calls you in the middle of the night

      • “Have you been calling Egypt for the last six hours?”

      • “No”

      • “Well, we have a call that’s actually active right now, it’s on your calling card and it’s to Egypt and as a matter of fact, you’ve got about $2000 worth of charges on your card and … read off your AT&T card number and PIN and then I’ll get rid of the charge for you”

Social problems2
Social Problems protected

  • There aren’t always solutions to all of these problems

    • Humans will continue to be tricked into giving out information they shouldn’t

    • Educating them may help a little here, but, depending on how bad you want the information, there are a lot of bad things you can do to get it

  • So, the best that can be done is to implement a wide variety of solutions and more closely monitor who has access to what network resources and information

    • But, this solution is still not perfect

Conclusions protected

  • The Internet works only because we implicitly trust one another

  • It is very easy to exploit this trust

  • The same holds true for software

  • It is important to stay on top of the latest CERT security advisories to know how to patch any security holes

A matter of balance
A Matter of Balance protected

  • There is an inverse relationship between convenience (ease-of-use) and security.

  • As you increase security, you lose convenience.



Activity 1
Activity 1 protected

  • Students to activate the firewall in their system

Activity 2
Activity 2 protected

  • Students to use the handouts and do the necessary steps to protect the data.