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Multimedia in Organisations BUSS 213 Lecture 1 Defining Media, Multiple Media, and Organisational Multimedia Notices Assignment 2 marks available Wednesday of this week Group 6 should download the new version of this file Agenda Defining Media Examples of New Media

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multimedia in organisations
Multimedia in Organisations

BUSS 213

Lecture 1

Defining Media, Multiple Media, and Organisational Multimedia

  • Assignment 2 marks available Wednesday of this week
  • Group 6 should download the new version of this file
  • Defining Media
  • Examples of New Media
    • Temporal Media (Audio, Video)
    • Immersive Media (QTVR, VRML)
    • New Media (Time Slice, STI)
  • Using New Media: Integration for Intranets
new media relevance
New Media- Relevance
  • some new digital media are being used to solve organisational problems
  • for example QTVR is being used by:
    • Real Estate Agents use it to describe the interiors of expensive properties which are to be auctioned,
    • Queensland Police are using it to create a realistic reconstruction of the crime scene
new media relevance6
New Media- Relevance
  • there are many forms of new digital media which are currently being created- many simply await an application for which they are suited
  • because Intranets are not necessarily limited to the speed and bandwidth constraints of the Internet- some of these new forms of media will be first available on Intranets
defining media 1
Defining Media (1)
  • Just what is a media?- the answer to this simple question is surprisingly complex
    • if we can answer this question we may be able to understand the relationship between the so-called new digital media and traditional media
    • we may also be able to build multimedia systems
defining media 2 failure of technical classification of media
Defining Media (2)Failure of Technical Classification of Media
  • Recall Reading #3 which classifies the types of media according to the type of data structures that are used
  • this is not an adequate explanation because it ignores how users actually ‘read’ or interact with these forms of media
defining media 3 media classification failure time slice
Defining Media (3)Media Classification Failure: Time Slice
  • an example of this is Time Slice Imaging (described latter)
    • Technical Classification considers it to be the same as Digital Video- Time Slice like Digital Video cannot be interacted with
    • yet, Time Slice provides an completely different experience for users- they ‘read’ it differently
defining media 4 new media from old media
Defining Media (4)‘New’ Media from ‘Old’ Media
  • the major reason new forms of media can be created is that traditional digital media can be transformed from data to processes
  • is achieved by adding:
    • Selection- on event do this
    • Repetition- repeat this until that
    • to the usual State for static media or Sequence for Time-ordered media
defining media 4 creating new media
Defining Media (4)Creating ‘New’ Media
  • if we can understand and define media we may be able to create entirely new kinds of passive and interactive experience for users!
  • but a better definition will require IS :
    • to go beyond technical considerations of data and process, and
    • to also consider how users ‘read’ media- the realm of semiotics!
time slice imaging 1
Time Slice Imaging (1)
  • to capture a time slice image:
    • use a special camera consisting of a large number of still cameras (~120) and arranged them in a large arc
    • the optical configuration of each still camera is such that each image overlaps its predecessor and successor
    • connect the cameras so that they all take an image of the same subject simultaneously
time slice imaging 2
Time Slice Imaging (2)
  • to create the time slice image:
    • edit together each of the still images either using linear film editing or by using non-linear digital editing, and
    • assemble the images onto a video tape ordering the images according to camera position- that is in a sequence from left-most camera to the right-most camera
time slice imaging 3
Time Slice Imaging (3)
  • then play back the movie!
  • the result is a captivating experience- a frozen moment scene from a huge number of angles
    • it is so startling because we do not see time this way and we are never able to get a view from multiple positions
    • truly a new media- technically identical to digital video but very different for users!
time slice imaging 4 examples
Time Slice Imaging (4)Examples
  • first mentioned in a small news item- Scientific American or New Scientist
  • Other Examples:
    • Various Advertisements
    • Lost in Space (1998)
    • The Matrix (1999)
  • Lecture Video Example:
    • BBC (1998) The Human Body- Part 2
timeslice camera
Timeslice Camera

“This camera gives a five-metre long 90 degree circular tracking shot in time-slice, live-action, long exposure, high-speed shutter or any combination. The camera performs like a compact motion-control rig. The optics are multi-coated, allowing the camera to perform to wide screen feature film standards. Again the construction is robust, enabling the camera to travel to far flung locations and work under the harshest conditions (as has proven the case with natural history work).”

quicktime vr19
QuickTime VR
  • first partially immersive VR system
    • QTVR is proprietary in that it must be developed on a high-end Macintosh,
    • but can be played on multiple platforms just like QuickTime
    • not a problem for multimedia developers who often prefer this platform because of its continuous support of graphic arts and design markets
quicktime vr types
QuickTime VRTypes
  • there are several types of VR that can be built using QuickTime VR:
    • Object Movies
    • Single Node Panoramic Movies
    • Multi-Node Movies
      • Sparse Multi-Node Scene
      • Continuous Multi-Node Scene
quicktime vr sources of object movies
QuickTime VRSources of Object Movies
  • photography of real object/s from all views using film or video
  • model and render virtual object/s from all views digitally
  • each view becomes a distinct frame in a frame space formed by a QuickTime movie
quicktime vr frame order and frame space
QuickTime VRFrame Order and Frame Space
  • the order of frames in the frame space is important:
    • if the object is real then simply photograph views in the corrct order
    • if the object is virtual then frames must be rendered in the corrct order
  • Frame Access Function is used identify which frames to display based on user interaction
object movies definition
Object MoviesDefinition...
  • two forms of object movies:
    • a 360º series of images around the ‘equator’ of an object, or
    • a series of images which form a number of ‘latitude’ loops around an object including the ‘north and south poles’
  • assembled to form a continuous loop of images
object movies definition25
Object Movies...Definition
  • size of the object is a consideration when creating object movies:
    • if the object for which an object movie is to be created is small then the object is rotated,
    • otherwise the camera rig is moved around the object to simulate rotation of the object
object movies background issues
Object MoviesBackground Issues
  • object movie backgrounds are generally black and featureless
  • makes the transition from the embedding media (panoramic VR or video) less jarring
  • it is also extremely difficult to match up the photometric and geometric characteristics of different media (described latter)
object movies medium
Object MoviesMedium...
  • photography-
    • produces great results
    • but has many difficult steps which are out of the control of the content creator
    • dependent on Kodak who are the only company that can create the necessary PhotoCDs
object movies medium28
Object MoviesMedium
  • analog video-
    • must be digitised which will require very expensive hardware and software
    • very noisy and will need image pre-processing before making the Object Movie
  • digital video-
    • convenient I-link (Firewire) upload of images to VR development machine
    • expensive but worth it!
object movies camera requirements
Object MoviesCamera Requirements...
  • if using photography you will need
    • a very good quality 35mm SLR camera- could be an old manual high-end camera or a new state-of-the-art high end-camera
    • camera mount that can hold the camera in portrait orientation
    • camera head which can turn the camera in equal segments of a circle
object movies camera requirements30
Object Movies…Camera Requirements
  • a wide angle lens- the wider it is the fewer the number of photographs are needed
  • lens characteristics (<15 mm is a very expensive fisheye lens; >28mm is approaching a normal lens- so forget it)
    • 15mm 12 images
    • 18mm 12 images
    • 28mm 18 images
object movies supports
Object MoviesSupports
  • any supports should not be visible in the completed object media
  • special supports for the items being photographed can be expensive- need special jigs to get a 360º series including the ‘poles’
  • can use an old record turntable if the objects are small
single node panoramic scene
Single-Node Panoramic Scene
  • allows a user to see a space or interior from a single point-of-view
  • does not allow the user to explore the interior
  • other types of QTVR objects (eg. Sparse and Continuous Multi-Node Scenes) are made by stitching multiple single node panoramic scenes together
sparse multi node scene
Sparse Multi-Node Scene
  • Users can jump between a set of key nodes located at points of interest in a space or interior
  • provides an experience which allows some limited navigational freedom
  • useful when there are only a few key points of interest and no need to show a continuous space
continuous multi node scene 1
Continuous Multi-Node Scene (1)
  • user has much more freedom to visit different locations in space
  • key nodes which lie at path intersections in front of interesting objects and displays
  • continuous space is created by positioning nodes between the key nodes- needed when everything is interesting
continuous multi node scene 2 example microlabs uow c 1995
Continuous Multi-node Scene (2)Example: MicroLabs, UOW c. 1995

Can be viewed or downloaded from the BUSS909 Intranet

qtvr production difficulties photochemical processes
QTVR Production DifficultiesPhotochemical Processes
  • a surprisingly large range of problems during VR production can occur as a result of the use of photographic source materials, photochemical processing and photo CD mastering stages
qtvr production difficulties photometric mismatches missing frames
QTVR Production DifficultiesPhotometric Mismatches; Missing Frames
  • similar mismatches occur between the photometric characteristics of photographic systems and video systems used to create VR and content sequences
  • missing frames from a node can lead to the exclusion of an entire node
qtvr production difficulties optical geometry mismatches
QTVR Production DifficultiesOptical Geometry Mismatches
  • mismatches between geometric characteristics of wide angle film lenses used in the production of VR and wide angle video lenses used in capturing ‘live action’ sequences that will be linked to the VR
  • apart from the fact that these are the only stages conducted outside the control of the VR production
vr production digital breakthrough
VR Production Digital Breakthrough
  • digital workflows are being developed with the advent of megapixel digital still cameras (left), and affordable (almost! sigh!) digital video camera (right)

other kinds of virtual reality spherical vrs single nodes
Other Kinds of Virtual RealitySpherical VRs (Single Nodes)

using new media reuse and scalability requirement
Using New MediaReuse and Scalability Requirement
  • the authors created a Multimedia Case Study structure which was sufficiently general to show most workplace actions and activities
  • major advantages of creating a general structure are reuse and scalability
using new media templates and widgets
Using New MediaTemplates and Widgets
  • the use of Media Templates to speed up the systems integration of the various media elements used,
  • a specially designed text widget, which enables large texts to be displayed within limited screen real estate
using new media templates and widgets47
Using New MediaTemplates and Widgets
  • the unusual properties of some of the inter-media developed in this project necessitated the use of templates
  • the Multimedia Case Study structure utilised three templates:
    • Digital Video Templates
    • VR Templates
    • Computer Model Templates
digital video template
Digital Video Template
  • supports sets of related QuickTime Digital Video clips
  • the interface for this template provides users with the ability to select between alternate points-of-view for a given action or activity at appropriate points during the playback of the video.
digital video template49
Digital Video Template
  • Unfamiliar workpractices can be made familiar by allowing the user to see the action from multiple points of view.
virtual reality template
Virtual Reality Template
  • supports the display of Quicktime VRs
  • the interface for this template alerts users to the existence of other embedded VR Objects and video/computer animation sequences
  • used to show the architectural layout of workplaces.
computer model template
Computer Model Template
  • supports the display of computer generated models
  • this template provides user with the ability to select between related sets of computer models, which may be nested.
  • is used to reveal objects not directly visible within a scene or to explain abstract concepts
computer model template52
Computer Model Template
  • these templates work in conjunction with each other
  • if the VR Template indicates an embedded resource is available the VR display frame of the VR Template morphs into the video display frame of the Digital Video Template.
text widget
Text Widget
  • the digital video, virtual reality, and computer model templates are designed to work in conjunction with a specially designed text widget
text widget54
Text Widget
  • the text widget is a cross between an hypertext browser and an outline processor
  • users can click on a tab to get a more complete textual description of an object or item of interest
  • Hyper-links are provided to open related text tabs or to highlight a region on an image for example
text widget55
Text Widget
  • the hyper-links are bi-directional, for example, clicking on a hyper-region in an image, also opens up an appropriate textual description
  • the advantage of this widget is that extended texts can be displayed without the user being overwhelmed by information
text widget56
Text Widget
  • the design of the tabs enables the structure and content of these texts to be easily quickly ascertained.
links spherical vrs
LinksSpherical VRs

Equipment Setup

Tripods- Handheld (Virtual)

  • Method:
  • Example:

Tripods- Actual

  • Equipment:



Timeslice Cameras

links spherical vrs58
LinksSpherical VRs

Helmut Dersch's Panorama Tools (PTools)

  • PTools
  • Ptgui (Joost Nieuwenhuijse)

PTools Related Tutorials

  • Ben Kreunen
  • Sascha Kerschhofer

PTools Related Examples (Philippe Hurbain’s Site)

  • Indoor Panoramas
  • Outdoor panoramas
  • Kite Panoramas
  • Clarke, R. J. and L. Schafe (1997) “Prototyping Multimedia: Experiences from the ‘Information Systems in Context’ CAUT Project” ASCILITE’97 Perth
  • Clarke, R. J. and L. Schafe (1999) Supply and Warehousing at BHP: Stocked Repairable Items Information Systems in Contexts CD-ROM, University of Wollongong in press
  • Martin, J. R. (1992) English Text: System and Structure Philadelphia/Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Schafe, L. and R. J. Clarke (1995) Information Systems in Context CAUT Proposal, University of Wollongong
  • Gibbs, S. J. and D. C. Tsichritzis (1995) Multimedia Programming: Objects, Environments and Frameworks Chapter 2: Media Types, ACM Press Books/Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 15-78; Reading #3