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Gendered Effects of Globalization. Global Cities & Labor Migration The Grameen Bank & New Forms of Self Employment. Effects of SAPs on Women. EDUCATION Women lose ground (Ault & Sandberg) Boys have priority over girls when cost of education rises.

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gendered effects of globalization

Gendered Effects of Globalization

Global Cities & Labor Migration

The Grameen Bank & New Forms of Self Employment

effects of saps on women
Effects of SAPs on Women
  • EDUCATION
  • Women lose ground (Ault & Sandberg)
  • Boys have priority over girls when cost of education rises.
  • Cuts to other programs (housing subsidies, health clinics) & inflation
  • Greater impact on women as family caretakers
slide3
EMPLOYMENT (in Developing Countries)
  • Higher Unemployment in Formal Sectors
  • B/C women are concentrated in:
  • vulnerable sectors (government clerks, electronics)
  • Gender stereotypes view women’s wages as secondary
  • Added worker effects stronger for women (women forced to join labor market to help families)
slide4
Feminization of employment
  • Increased growth in “female” jobs (e.g., manufacturing, services, tourism)

But, growth largely in:

  • non-formal sectors (e.g., domestic work, garment work)

(See Ault & Sandberg)

  • Increase in casual work
  • Temporary, P/T work
  • Consequences:
  • Women more vulnerable to exploitation
  • Women lose formal benefits
feminized survival strategies
Feminized Survival Strategies

1. Self-employment

  • Growth of self-employment in small-scale businesses in developing countries.

We will return to this and view a film on the

Grameen Bank

2. Migration

  • Increased migration of women to developed countries for work.
  • Why Women? (Turn to Sassen)
global cities survival circuits saskia sassen
Global Cities & Survival CircuitsSaskia Sassen
  • Globalization:
  • Myth: Globalization eliminates unskilled work
  • Reality (Globalization promotes class polarization)
  • Increase in professional jobs (information technology, finance) concentrated in “global” (1st world) cities.

Yielded the expansion of low-paid service jobs:

  • Formal: Clerks, Janitors, Hotel Maids
  • Informal (the new serving class): Flow from consumption practices of professionals (e.g., nannies, housekeepers)
  • Informal: Sweatshops, home-based work
slide7
Feminization of service sector (domestic

service, home-based garment work)

Resulted in:

  • Historical Shift in migrant work
  • Migrant workers are increasingly women.
migration circuits
Migration Circuits
  • Women
  • Governments
  • Traffickers (sex and other types of informal work)
  • Governments
    • Remittance Payments are a source of revenue for developing countries.
    • Governments implement worker programs to promote labor migration (see Philippines Overseas Employment Admin. Pg. 271).
push pull factors
Push & Pull Factors
  • Pull factor = growth of service jobs in 1st world.
  • Push factor= unemployment, underemployment, loss of social safety net, and increased poverty in home country.

Debt crisis & interest rates

& Elimination of:

Nationalized industries

Small firms oriented to national market unemployment

low wages

summary
Summary
  • Labor migration
  • Benefits to women: Increased economic independence despite low-wage work.
  • Problems: Feminized survival strategies overburdens women. Women experience informal low-wage work, loss of benefits, sexual and other forms of labor exploitation.
slide11
Revisit benefits:
  • Changing gender roles and increased economic independence through self-employment.
  • Information on Grameen Bank
  • Film