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Geert Hofstede's. Five Cultural Dimensions. Identity. Identity focuses on the degree the society reinforces individual or collective achievement and interpersonal relationships. Identity (cont.). Individualism Core value : individual freedom Core distinction : me/others

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    1. Geert Hofstede's Five Cultural Dimensions

    2. Identity • Identity focuses on the degree the society reinforces individual or collective achievement and interpersonal relationships.

    3. Identity (cont.) • Individualism Core value: individual freedom Core distinction: me/others Key element: explicit concepts are preferred in communication

    4. Identity (cont.) • Collectivism Core value: group harmony Core distinction: in/outgroup Key element: relationships are more important than the task

    5. Power Power distance focuses on the degree of equality or inequality between people in the country or society.

    6. Power (cont.) • High Power Distance Core value: respect for status Core distinction: powerful/dependent Key element: centralization

    7. Power (cont.) • Low Power Distance Core value: people’s equality Core distinction: whether or not responsible for certain task Key element: decentralization

    8. Gender Gender focuses on the degree of traditional gender role of achievement, control, and power.

    9. Gender (cont.) • Masculinity Core value: winning Core distinction: man/woman Key element: material success is a dominant value

    10. Gender (cont.) • Femininity Core value: caring for others Core distinction: care/need care Key element: caring for the weak & preservation is dominant

    11. Time Time focuses on the degree the society embraces long- or short-term devotion to traditional forward thinking values.

    12. Time (cont.) • Long-Term Orientation Core value: long-term benefits Core distinction: serve goals/not Key element: thrift and saving are good

    13. Time (cont.) • Short-Term Orientation Core value: saving face Core distinction: proper or not Key element: quick results are expected

    14. Uncertainty Uncertainty focuses on the level of avoidance or tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity within the society.

    15. Uncertainty (cont.) • Uncertainty Avoidance Core value: certainty Core distinction: true/false Key element: what is different is dangerous

    16. Uncertainty (cont.) • Uncertainty Tolerance Core value: exploration Core distinction: urgent or not Key element: what is different causes curiosity

    17. Summary