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Chapter 5

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  1. Chapter 5 Norton Media Library Chapter 5 The American Revolution, 1763–1783 Eric Foner

  2. I. Thomas Hutchinson

  3. II. The Crisis Begins • Consolidating the Empire • Prior to the Seven Years’ War, London had loosely tried to regulate some of the colony’s economy • After the Seven Years’ War, London insisted that the colonists play a subordinate role to the mother country and help pay for the protection the British provided • Members of the British Parliament had virtual representation • Colonists argued London could not tax them because they were underrepresented in Parliament

  4. II. The Crisis Begins (con’t) • The Stamp Act Crisis • The Stamp Act of 1765 was a direct tax on all sorts of printed materials • The Act was wide reaching and offended virtually every free colonist • Opposition to the Stamp Act was the first great drama of the Revolutionary era and the first major split between colonists and Great Britain over the meaning of freedom • American leaders viewed the empire as an association of equals in which free settlers overseas enjoyed the same rights as Britons at home • Stamp Act Congress met in 1765 to endorse Virginia’s House of Burgesses’ resolutions • Patrick Henry

  5. II. The Crisis Begins (con’t) • Liberty and Resistance • No word was more frequently invoked by critics of the Stamp Act than liberty • Liberty Tree • Liberty Hall • Liberty Pole • A Committee of Correspondence was created in Boston and other colonies to exchange ideas about resistance • The Sons of Liberty were organized to resist the Stamp Act and enforce a boycott of British goods • London repealed the Stamp Act, but issued the Declaratory Act


  6. II. The Crisis Begins (con’t) • Land and Liberty • Settlers also cried “liberty” in regard to land disputes • The “Regulators” in the Carolinas used liberty to promote their cause • Land disputes were behind the creation of Vermont • Ethan Allen

  7. III. The Road to Revolution • The Townshend Crisis • The 1767 Townshend Act imposed taxes on imported goods • By 1768 colonies were again boycotting British goods • Use of American goods came to be seen as a symbol of American resistance • Urban artisans strongly supported the boycott

  8. III. The Road to Revolution (con’t) • The Boston Massacre • The March 1770 conflict between Bostonians and British troops left five Bostonians dead • Crispus Attucks • The boycott ended after the Townshend duties were repealed, except for a tax on tea • The treatment of John Wilkes and the rumors of Anglican bishops being sent to America convinced many settlers that England was succumbing to the same pattern of political corruption and decline of liberty that afflicted other countries

  9. III. The Road to Revolution (con’t) • The Tea and Intolerable Acts • The Tea Act was intended to bail out the East India Company and help to defray the costs of colonial government • On December 16, 1773, colonists threw over 300 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor • London’s response was swift and harsh with the Intolerable Acts • The Quebec Act granted religious toleration for Catholics in Canada

  10. IV. The Coming of Independence • The Continental Association • To resist the Intolerable Acts, a Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia in 1774 • The Congress adopted the Continental Association, which called for an almost complete halt to trade with Great Britain and the West Indies • Committees of Safety were established to enforce the boycotts • The Committees of Safety enlarged the “political nation”

  11. IV. The Coming of Independence (con’t) • The Sweets of Liberty • By 1775 talk of liberty pervaded the colonies • As the crisis deepened, Americans increasingly based their claims not simply on the historical rights of Englishmen but on the more abstract language of natural rights and universal freedom • John Locke • Thomas Jefferson

  12. IV. The Coming of Independence (con’t) • The Outbreak of War • In April 1775, war broke out at Lexington and Concord • The Battle of Bunker Hill was a British victory, but the colonists forced General Howe from Boston by March 1776 • The Second Continental Congress raised an army and appointed George Washington its commander • Independence? • That the goal of this war was independence was not clear by the end of 1775 • Opinions varied in the colonies as to the question of independence

  13. IV. The Coming of Independence (con’t) • Common Sense • Thomas Paine penned Common Sense in January 1776 • Called for a democratic system based on frequent elections and a written constitution • Paine tied the economic hopes of the new nation to the idea of commercial freedom • Paine dramatically expanded the public sphere where political discussion took place

  14. IV. The Coming of Independence (con’t) • The Declaration of Independence • The Declaration of Independence declared that Britain’s aim was to establish “absolute tyranny” over the colonies and, as such, Congress declared the United States an independent nation • Jefferson’s preamble gave the Declaration its enduring impact • The Declaration of Independence completed the shift from the rights of Englishmen to the rights of mankind as the object of American independence • The “pursuit of happiness” was unique

  15. IV. The Coming of Independence (con’t) • An Asylum for Mankind • The idea of “American exceptionalism” was prevalent in the Revolution

  16. V. Securing Independence • The Balance of Power • Britain had the advantage of a large, professional army and navy • Patriots had the advantage of fighting on their own soil and a passionate desire for freedom • British soldiers alienated Americans, while citizen-soldiers displayed great valor

  17. V. Securing Independence (con’t) • The First Years of the War • The war went badly for George Washington • The Battle of Saratoga in October 1777 gave the patriots a victory and boost to morale • The victory convinced the French to aid the Americans in 1778 • The War in the South • The focus of the war shifted to the South in 1778 • British commanders were unable to consolidate their hold on the South

  18. V. Securing Independence (con’t) • Victory at Last • Washington and French troops surrounded General Cornwallis at Yorktown, where he surrendered in October 1781 • The Treaty of Paris was signed in September 1783 • The American delegation consisted of John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay

  19. The Revolutionary War in the North, 1775–1781 • pg. 193 The Revolutionary War in the North, 1775–1781

  20. The Revolutionary War in the South, 1775–1781 • pg. 195 The Revolutionary War in the South, 1775–1781

  21. North America, 1783 • pg. 197 North America, 1783

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  31. http://www.wwnorton.com/foner/ Go to website

  32. End chap. 5 This concludes the Norton Media Library Slide Set for Chapter 5 Give Me Liberty! An American History by Eric Foner W. W. Norton & CompanyIndependent and Employee-Owned