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Understanding Human Development. The Learner. CHAPTER THREE NOTE METHOD. When you see this, write the info from the slide. If you don’t see this, it’s a discussion slide and you write only what you need to for remembering. If something is highlighted, copy it! .

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chapter three note method
CHAPTER THREE NOTE METHOD

When you see this, write the info from the slide. If you don’t see this, it’s a discussion slide and you write only what you need to for remembering.

If something is highlighted, copy it!

slide3

The principle goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done.

Jean PiagetRead more athttp://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/j/jean_piaget.html#Zf2elCv2XfSt9af1.99

slide4

Human

Growth

Philosophers

slide5

Part one

~

Stages of development

human growth development
Human Growth & Development

LIFE is a process of growth and development.

  • GROWTH – physical changes in size
    • Most growth occurs during the first 20 years of life
  • DEVELOPMENT – the gradual increase in skills and abilities that occurs over a lifetime
    • Development occurs during a person’s lifespan.
areas of development
Areas of Development

Physical Development

Physical development is advancement in physical abilities.

Motor skills, needing strength and coordination, are developing during this stage.

cognitive development
Cognitive Development

Areas of Development

  • Processes involving thought and knowledge are called cognition.
    • Thinking has many forms:
      • You knowyour phone number…
      • You sensewhat is happening around you…
      • You memorizefacts for a test…
      • You organizethoughts to write a paragraph…
  • The way people change and improve in their ability to think and learn is called intellectual development, or cognitive development.
cognitive development1
Cognitive Development

Areas of Development

  • Cognitive abilities, intellectual abilities, gradually increase.
    • Consider your 1st grade math skills compared to your current math skills!
      • What you know in math has changed.
      • The WAY you are taught math has changed.
  • The development of connections between nerve cells in the brain is the key component to cognitive development at all stages of life.
    • Brain connections grow and strengthen with new experiences and repetition of familiar experiences.
social emotional development
Social-Emotional Development

Areas of Development

  • Social-emotional development includes the areas of relationships.

Do you “STILL” think those of opposite gender are GROSS?!?!?

social emotional development1
Social-Emotional Development

Areas of Development

  • Individuals must learn social skills and how to care about others.
social emotional development2
Social-Emotional Development

Areas of Development

  • Individuals must develop both self-confidence and self-esteem.
social emotional development3
Social-Emotional Development

Areas of Development

  • Individuals must learn self-control – waiting turns, waiting in line, listening while others are speaking…
  • At each developmental stage, social and emotional challenges increase.
    • Increasing independence in childhood
    • Complex social situations in adolescence
    • Establishing an identity
    • Adult relationships
    • Parenting
    • Careers
    • Retirement
    • And numerous other life challenges
  • The way individuals meet these challenges depend on skills they develop early in life and their ability to adapt to situations.
slide15

It’s human nature to

try to figure things out…

slide18

Principles of Human Development

  • Human Nature – We try to figure things out!
  • Research continues about human development; however, these four concepts we know about development.
    • It’s relatively orderly.
    • It’s a gradual, continuous process.
    • It’s interrelated, consistent.
    • It varies among individuals.
1 development is relatively orderly

Principles of Human Development

1) Development is Relatively Orderly
  • Development occurs in a predictable and orderly manner – a sequence of step, consistently following one after another.
  • Teachers use knowledge of the developmental progress to design effective learning strategies appropriate to the age of their students.

Children learn:

2 development is a gradual continuous process

Principles of Human Development

2) Development is a Gradual, Continuous Process

An adult typically has fewer accidents than a teen because years of practice and experience have improved his/her skills.

3 development is interrelated

Principles of Human Development

3) Development is Interrelated.

ALL is required to be a good player!

  • Interrelated – Connected
  • Acquiring new skills usually requires growth in all areas – physical, cognitive, social, and emotional.
4 development varies among individuals

Principles of Human Development

4) Development varies among individuals.
  • MANY factors affect development.
  • Even twins have different experiences.
  • Personality, knowledge, and prior experiences affect the way an individual responds to life-changing experiences.
  • We reach growth at different rates and on slightly different time schedules.
theories of development
Theories of Development
  • Developmental theories are comprehensive explanations, based on research, about why people act and behave the way they do and how they change over time.
theories of development1
Theories of Development

STOP to read the first two paragraphs on page 66.

developmental theories
Developmental Theories

WHY do you need to learn this “junk”?

  • You are going to have to meet the learning needs of students.
  • Understanding what they are capable of doing will help you plan valuable lessons.
  • Instead of relying on your personal experiences and observations, you will have a broader picture, understanding developmental theories.
  • As you learn, evaluate – compare to your life experiences – thing about the potential impact this understanding can have in YOUR classroom…
heredity vs environment theories of development
Heredity vs. EnvironmentTheories of Development

STUDENT ONE – ANDRE

STUDENT TWO - BRYSON

Bursting with energy

Can hardly wait to read.

Speaks loudly.

Speaks confidently even when stumbling over words.

  • Shy
  • Reserved
  • Nervous
  • Speaks quietly.
  • Reads well, but students can barely hear.

CLASSROOM GOAL: Read orally in class.

What’s the difference between the two?

A bigger question: WHYis there a difference?

heredity vs environment theories of development1
Heredity vs. EnvironmentTheories of Development

WHY ARE THE BOYS DIFFERENT?

  • Is it NATURE (Heredity) or NURTURE (Environment)?
  • Is it personality, abilities, skills, and genetics?
  • Is it a result of their environment; shy parents or family?
  • Did people and environment affect the boys or were they like – born this way?

Lady GaGa

  • Most will say – BOTH, heredity and environment play a factor in the boys response.
heredity vs environment theories of development2
Heredity vs. EnvironmentTheories of Development
  • Heredity and the environment interact in complex ways.
  • Genes have far-reaching influence. Biological inheritance not only determines hair and eye color, it impacts a person’s intellectual potential and desire for social interaction.
  • What children experience in any environment is a personal response between genetic makeup and the environment in which they develop.
heredity vs environment theories of development3
Heredity vs. EnvironmentTheories of Development
  • Shy parents = Shy Children ; Outgoing parents = Outgoing Children
  • However, a shy child CAN become more outgoing!!!
  • No single gene determines a particular behavior; behaviors are affected by a variety of environmental factors.
  • Genes are only a PART of the story – it’s not the WHOLE story and all traits do not “have” to develop!!!
  • A person is shaped by genes, experiences, social and emotional traits from environment, physical traits, cognitive abilities, and stimulating environmental events.
  • **Infants that are held and cared for, develop more connections between brain cells than infants who are not.
heredity vs environment theories of development4
Heredity vs. EnvironmentTheories of Development
  • Environmental Factors – Think about how your life has been shaped by your experiences and the impact your words and actions can have on those around you…
family
FAMILY:
  • Families often have the greatest effect on human development.
  • Infants gain their first experiences with the world through the care and attention they receive.
  • The bond between parent and child is the most basic.
    • What about infants that have poor care?
  • Children learn to interact with others within family.
  • The QUALITY of home environment is a KEY to a very complex development of a child.
  • Home life impacts physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development. Home is where moral development occurs.
family1
FAMILY:
  • Effective parenting techniques and providing a stimulating home environment are consistently associated with better outcomes for children.
  • Being an effective parent does not depend on advanced education or high income. (**Think about this statement.)
  • Parenting skills can be learned!
  • Researchers continue to study how and why families affect various aspects of development: sibling relationships, the impact of being an only child, birth order, middle child syndrome, the emotional climate of the home – all are areas of study.
peers
PEERS:
  • The impact of peers increases in late childhood and adolescence.
  • The ability to make and maintain friendships, attaining social power and status, acceptance, and belonging – all affect social and emotional development.
  • Peers offer equal status, a missing element in child-adult relationships.
  • Peer relationships remain important to development throughout life!!
community
COMMUNITY:
  • Where a person lives influences development.
  • Behaviors that are modeled by other in neighborhoods and communities can impact the behavior and career expectations of its residents.
  • Research shows a relationship between feelings of self-worth and how people perceive their environment and their feelings of self-worth.
  • Some communities have more cultural opportunities than others.
  • Schools are part of communities,
  • The culture of a school, the expectations conveyed to its students, and the abilities and attitudes of its teachers have an impact on students.
slide35

PERCEPTION

Is the cat at the TOP or BOTTOM of a flight of stairs?

slide36

Saxophone

Player?

Or

Young

Woman?

slide37

Is it moving?

Really?

Notice how parts you AREN’T looking at moves. Focus your eyes and that part remains still…

Really?

Is it moving?

slide38

PERCEPTION

MATTERS

Is this the top of a button OR the bottom of a box?!?!?

media
MEDIA:
  • Students mimic television characters, recite lines from performances, and sing ad jingles.
  • Media messages have been blamed for many negative social problems in our society.
  • How a person interprets a messages and its effects depend on things unique to that person’s life. (PERCEPTION)
  • Perceptioncan depend on age, related experiences, values taught in the home, and media education. These can be positive or negative. The effect may not be immediately apparent.
  • Watching a superhero fight – children may mimic the actions immediately; repeatedly viewing violent images can have long-term effects.
health
HEALTH:
  • Diseases and illnesses may interrupt the normal development of a person.
    • An expecting mother who abuses alcohol or other drugs may have a child with a lifetime of developmental delays.
    • A child with autism may have difficulty in forming close friendships; they may have delayed and limited speech.
    • A child with chronic illness and absences from school may have difficulty with schoolwork.
    • The availability of health care can influence development; regular checkups will most likely detect problems limiting the impact of complications.
nutrition physical activity
NUTRITION & PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
  • Nutritious food and adequate exercise is needed for normal physical growth, development, and functioning.
  • Lack of PROPER NUTRITION, not simply food, affects cognitive development and limits learning and productivity.
  • Poor nutrition and lack of exercise hinders social and emotional development.
    • Example: (A CHAIN REACTION THAT COULD BE PREVENTED)
    • Lack of proper nutrition and exercise and cause a child to be overweight – causing possible teasing by peers – causing low self-esteem in the child, causing a lack of proper social relationships – causing depression – causing sickness – causing lack of attendance in school – causing getting behind in school work – causing failing grades – causing poor self-image - …etc. … the list could continue - so TEACH children to eat healthy and exercise!
slide42

End of Part one

~

Stages of development

behaviorism
Behaviorism
  • Behaviorismis a theory based on the belief that individuals’ behavior is determined by forces in the environment that are beyond their control.
  • According to behaviorists:
    • How people behave (thoughts, feelings, and actions) depends on what they have learned through experience, rather than genetics or free will.
    • Babies come into the world as “blank screens”.
pavlov
PAVLOV
  • Pavlov started from the idea that there are some things that a dog does not need to learn.  For example, dogs don’t learn to salivate whenever they see food. This reflex is ‘hard wired’ into the dog. In behaviorist terms, it is an unconditioned reflex (i.e. a stimulus-response connection that required no learning).
  • Pavlov discovered that any object (a bell) or event which the dogs learnt to associate with food would trigger the same response, he realized that he had made an important scientific discovery, and he devoted the rest of his career to studying this type of learning.
  • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
slide46

Pavlov

Pavlov’s Dog

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Behaviors Can Be Associated With Responses

pavlov1
PAVLOV
  • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING – the theory that behaviors can be associated with responses
  • A dog naturally salivates at the sight of food.
  • Each time he fed the dog, he rang a bell.
  • Soon, when the dog heard the bell, he salivated.
  • A parent afraid of bugs may unknowingly pass that fear along to their child by gasping or communicating alarm when they see bugs.
  • Do you have “something” (a word, a picture, a song) that automatically brings a smile to your face because of a positive experience?
  • All of our experiences, whether positive, negative, or neutral, can affect our emotions, attitudes, and behaviors.
slide48

Pavlov - CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Behaviors Can Be Associated With Responses

skinner
SKINNER
  • A Skinner box is a chamber that contains a bar or key that an animal can press or manipulate in order to obtain food or water as a type of reinforcement.
  • When the lever is pressed, food, water, or some other type of reinforcement might be dispensed. Other stimuli can also be presented including lights, sounds, and images. In some instances, the floor of the chamber may be electrified.
slide50

Skinner

“The Skinner Box”

OPERANT CONDITIONING

Behaviors that have a positive result or reinforcement are repeated

skinner1
SKINNER
  • OPERANT CONDITIONING is when people tend to repeat behaviors that have a positive result or are reinforced.
  • To make new behaviors permanent, the reinforcements are to be removed gradually, and in unpredictable patterns. Sometimes reinforced; sometimes not. (Behaviorist call this effect, LEARNING.)
  • Negative reinforcement, or punishment, can reduce unwanted behaviors.
slide52

Pavlov - CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Behaviors Can Be Associated With Responses

Skinner - OPERANT CONDITIONING

Behaviors that have a positive result or reinforcement are repeated

bandura
BANDURA
  • In social learning theory Albert Bandura (1977) states behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning.  Children observe the people around them behaving in various ways. This is illustrated during the famous bobo doll experiment.
  • Explanation - http://www.simplypsychology.org/bobo-doll.html
  • Children observed adults with a bobo doll and imitated their behavior!
slide54

Bandura

Based on Individuals

~Observation~

SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY

People are complex!

Reactions to rewards and punishments are filtered by perceptions, thoughts, and motivations.

bandura1
BANDURA
  • Bandura argued that people are too complex for simple classical or operant conditioning; that people of all ages observeand imitatethe behaviors of others, regardless of rewards or punishments involved.
  • Bandura supports SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY: People ARE affected by rewards and punishments, but their reactions to them are filtered by their own perceptions, thoughts, and motivations.
  • People “might” mimic, but the mimicked experience may not have the same effect.
  • A person’s response is based on personal reactions and how the individual processes information.
slide56

Pavlov - CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Behaviors Can Be Associated With Responses

Skinner - OPERANT CONDITIONING

Behaviors that have a positive result or reinforcement are repeated

Bandura - SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY

People are complex!

Reactions to rewards and punishments are filtered by perceptions, thoughts, and motivations.

piaget
PIAGET
  • Piaget's theory states that as children develop biologically they also meet specific cognitive goals. Developments of adaptive behaviors are connected to mental development. These are obtained in specific chronological stages. Piaget's theory contrasts to other developmental theories by focusing on the development of intellect. Piaget contributed the idea that children's minds grow gradually, and that they are not capable of reasoning like adults.Read more: How to Explain Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development | eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/how_7722233_explain-piagets-theory-cognitive-development.html#ixzz28zv7uxHr
slide58

4

Learning is based on age and experimentation with objects.

Piaget

4 STAGES OF COGNITIVE THEORY

~People are similar, but differencesin individuals matter~

At any stage of life, thinking skills or individuals are similar.

Sensorimotor, Toddler, Early Childhood, Adolescence and Adulthood

piaget1
PIAGET

Can you find the differences?

piaget2

4

3

2

1

PIAGET
  • Others were celebrating behaviorism; Piaget began looking for differences! ~The FourStages of Cognitive Development~
  • He found that at any stage of life, thinking skills of individuals are similar.
  • At each new stage, people incorporate new experiences into what they know based on skills they have developed earlier in previous stages.
  • Piaget improved understanding of cognitive skills development.
  • Young children base thinking on senses.
    • (Logical Thought: The moon is following me!)
  • Children need continuous exposure to experimentation, discover, and first-hand experiences to develop.
slide62

Pavlov - CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Behaviors Can Be Associated With Responses

Skinner - OPERANT CONDITIONING

Behaviors that have a positive result or reinforcement are repeated

Bandura - SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY

People are complex!

Reactions to rewards and punishments are filtered by perceptions, thoughts, and motivations.

Piaget – Stages of Cognitive Development

~People are similar, but differencesin individuals matter~

At any stage of life, thinking skills or individuals are similar.

Sensorimotor, Toddler, Early Childhood, Adolescence and Adulthood

vygotsky
VYGOTSKY
  • Culture is the prime determinant of individual development.
slide64

Vygotsky

Learning is social.

SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY

Social interaction is critical to cognitive development.

Interaction with parents, teachers, and other students influence development.

vygotsky1
VYGOTSKY
  • People learn through interaction, social and cultural environment, not just through experimentation!!!
  • Vygotsky believed children are social. Their minds develop through interactions with parents, teachers, and peers.
  • He believed that social interaction was critical to cognitive development.
slide66

Pavlov - CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Behaviors Can Be Associated With Responses

Skinner - OPERANT CONDITIONING

Behaviors that have a positive result or reinforcement are repeated

Bandura - SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY

People are complex!

Reactions to rewards and punishments are filtered by perceptions, thoughts, and motivations.

Piaget – Stages of Cognitive Development

~People are similar, but differencesin individuals matter~

At any stage of life, thinking skills or individuals are similar.

Sensorimotor, Toddler, Early Childhood, Adolescence and Adulthood

slide67

Vygotsky - SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY

Social interaction is critical to cognitive development.

Interaction with parents, teachers, and other students influence development.

erikson
Erikson
  • Each person has to pass through a series of eight interrelated stages over his entire life cycle!
slide69

8

Erikson

Personality matters.

PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY

Personality development occurs during eight stages of life.

At each stage, people must successfully face and resolve a psychological or social conflict. Being unsuccessful will affect future stages of development.

erikson1

Read page 75

ERIKSON –

Most influential developmental researcher of the 20thCentury

  • PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY – personality development occurs during eight stages of life. At each stage, people must successfully face and resolve a psychological or social conflict to continue development.
slide71

Pavlov - CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Behaviors Can Be Associated With Responses

Skinner - OPERANT CONDITIONING

Behaviors that have a positive result or reinforcement are repeated

Bandura - SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY

People are complex!

Reactions to rewards and punishments are filtered by perceptions, thoughts, and motivations.

Piaget – Stages of Cognitive Development

~People are similar, but differencesin individuals matter~

At any stage of life, thinking skills or individuals are similar.

Sensorimotor, Toddler, Early Childhood, Adolescence and Adulthood

slide72

Vygotsky - SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY

Social interaction is critical to cognitive development.

Interaction with parents, teachers, and other students influence development.

Erikson - PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY

Personality development occurs during eight stages of life.

At each stage, people must successfully face and resolve a psychological or social conflict. Being unsuccessful will affect future stages of development.

kohlberg
Kohlberg
  • One of the best known of Kohlberg’s stories concerns a man called Heinz who lived somewhere in Europe.
  • Heinz’s wife was dying from a particular type of cancer. Doctors said a new drug might save her. The drug had been discovered by a local chemist and the Heinz tried desperately to buy some, but the chemist was charging ten times the money it cost to make the drug and this was much more than the Heinz could afford. Heinz could only raise half the money, even after help from family and friends. He explained to the chemist that his wife was dying and asked if he could have the drug cheaper or pay the rest of the money later. The chemist refused saying that he had discovered the drug and was going to make money from it. The husband was desperate to save his wife, so later that night he broke into the chemist’s and stole the drug.
kohlberg1
Kohlberg

Kohlberg asked a series of questions such as:

  • 1. Should Heinz have stolen the drug?2. Would it change anything if Heinz did not love his wife?3. What if the person dying was a stranger, would it make any difference?4. Should the police arrest the chemist for murder if the woman died?
  • By studying the answers from people of different ages to these questions Kohlberg hoped to discover the ways in which moral reasoning changed as people grew.  Kohlberg told several dilemma stories and asked many such questions to discover how people reasoned about moral issues.  He identified three distinct levels of moral reasoning each with two sub stages. People can only pass through these levels in the order listed. Each new stage replaces the reasoning typical of the earlier stage. Not everyone achieves all the stages.
slide75

Moral Development

Kohlberg

MORAL DEVELOPMENT

What is right or wrong is based on perspective and stages of development.

kohlberg2
KOHLBERG
  • PRECONVENTIONAL MORALITY
    • Decisions about what is right or wrong depend on whether you will be punished or rewarded for your behavior.
    • Moral decision are viewed from a personal perspective.
  • CONVENTIONAL MORALITY
    • Decisions are based on society’s basic rules of right and wrong behavior.
    • Moral decisions are motivated by society’s laws and rules and how a person that disobeys might be perceived. People may set their own persona interests aside for the good of society as a whole.
  • POSTCONVENTIONAL MORALITY
    • Decisions are based on principles such as justice and individual conscience. There are universal moral laws related to human rights that are most important to follow.
    • Moral decisions are motivated by integrity rather than personal interest or punishment.
slide77

Pavlov - CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Behaviors Can Be Associated With Responses

Skinner - OPERANT CONDITIONING

Behaviors that have a positive result or reinforcement are repeated

Bandura - SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY

People are complex!

Reactions to rewards and punishments are filtered by perceptions, thoughts, and motivations.

Piaget – Stages of Cognitive Development

~People are similar, but differencesin individuals matter~

At any stage of life, thinking skills or individuals are similar.

Sensorimotor, Toddler, Early Childhood, Adolescence and Adulthood

slide78

Vygotsky - SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY

Social interaction is critical to cognitive development.

Interaction with parents, teachers, and other students influence development.

Erikson - PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY

Personality development occurs during eight stages of life.

At each stage, people must successfully face and resolve a psychological or social conflict. Being unsuccessful will affect future stages of development.

MORAL DEVELOPMENT

What is right or wrong is based on perspective and stages of development.

slide79

Human

Growth

Philosophers

slide80

So who’s right?

Human

Growth

Philosophers

which theory is correct
Which theory is correct?
  • Throughout your career, theories will emerge and knowledge will change!
  • Gaining greater understanding of the way humans learn helps teachers develop effective teaching strategies.
which theory is correct1
Which theory is correct?
  • Throughout your career, theories will emerge and knowledge changes.
  • Gaining greater understanding of the way humans learn helps teachers develop effective teaching strategies.
  • YOUR TURN:
    • Present your personal theory and belief of learning. Use what you’ve learned in this unit to develop your presentation.
    • Due: __________
video clips
Video Clips
  • Pavlov
    • http://www.schooltube.com/video/84f042baa171d98f78fa/
  • Skinner
    • http://www.schooltube.com/video/caa02d0b960d4738b8c7/Operant%20Conditioning%20BF%20Skinner
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X6zS7v9nSpo
  • Bandura
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zerCK0lRjp8
  • Piaget