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  1. Bomina Kang Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the US and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the US

  2. Facts Pico de Orizaba Tallest volcano Downtown Mexico City Lake Chapala Geographic coordinates : 23 00 N, 102 00 W (1). Area : total=1,972,550 sq km ; land=1,923,040 sqkm ; water=49,510 sqkm Population: 114,975,406 (July 2012 est.) Government type : federal republic Area-comparative : slightly less than three times the size of texas Land Boundaries : total=4,353 km border countries=Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,141 km Climate : -- Along the coast (on both sides of the country) it is hot and humid, unbearably so in the summer(2). -- Inland communities at higher elevations such as Guadalajara (5200 ft above sea level) and in particular close-by Lake Chapala, are much dryer and more temperate -- Mexico City (Ciudad de Mexico), with its much higher elevation of 7545.93 ft (2300 sq meters) above sea level, can reach freezing temperatures in the winter Terrain: high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert

  3. Interview -- The culture : It is simply, no strict rules, or laws. Just common sense. Respect one another, do not kill, obey laws, work, eat, sleep. Nothing out of the ordinary. -- Fun facts: Even though we have technology like we do here. We still and probably always will love to play outside. We play soccer a lot! volleyball, baseball, some basketball. and we played in the streets in mexico. well my generation did, however my father and his brothers and sisters had to work when they wer young and growing up. Another fun fact is that whenever mexico national soccer team wins some sort of big tournament, everyone in mexico city goes to El Angel de independencia which is a large roundabout with an angel statue in the middle, and everyone celebrates and has a good time! -- Health restrictions: : Not really no, you go to mexico and theres only a couple of people that are fat or big, however they do not get surgery or change their lifestyle until after a stroke or heart attack or deadly. People say "i want to savor everything about life and if i die then i die."

  4. it’s a little harder to assimilate into the Mexican culture because everyone is already very close. A good way to assimilate is by marrying a Mexican. Interview I like that it is a family based country. I like that money isn’t really important, as long as you have your family you will be happy. Mexican people are very hard working. We all start working from a young age and we don’t really retire. We retire from our job but keep working on our house or cars or anything from then on. I don’t really know, since the U.S. is an immigrant country you don’t really assimilate to the country, you just add a little bit of your culture to the U.S. For example we still do a lot of things the Mexican way, but at the same time we also do American things. You just add to it.

  5. Religion 82.7% are all Roman Catholics (3). Important family events : traditional religious ceremonies, such as baptism, communion, confirmation, marriage, and the novenas Religious Practitioner : catholic priests Rituals : Easter and good Friday Holy places : Our Lady of Guadalupe shrine at the huge modern basilica in new Mexico city *Many believe they have no direct control over their own fate. (4). Our lady of Guadalupe Guadalupe Basilica in Mexico City

  6. Food in Daily Life Traditional Staples: diets differ because of the availability of local fruits, vegetables, or meats (4). -Tortillas, beans, meat (sausage such as spicy pork is popular) -famous for stuffed foods, such as tacos, enchiladas, tamales, quesadillas, and burritos. vegetables are part of main dish (potatoes, greens, tomatoes and onions), -chili peppers are extensively in seasonings and sauces, sweets of all kinds are popular, coffee as most common beverage -- Mexicans generally have a light breakfast of coffee and/or fruit before they leave for work or school. (5). -- The most important meal of the day is served between two and four in the afternoon (the comida ) and consists of three or four courses: soup; rice or pasta; meat or chicken—if affordable—accompanied by tortillas and refried beans; and dessert. -- Dinner is served between eight and ten at night and consists mainly of sweet rolls, coffee, and milk. Mexicans frequently eat outdoors breakfast lunch dinner dinner breakfast

  7. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions -- A popular religious fiesta is the Día de la Candelaria (Candlemas) on 2 February, which celebrates the purification of Mary and the presentation and blessing of Jesus (5). -- During the Day of the Dead, 2 November, people consume pan de muerto (bread of the dead), a long and flat sweet bread prepared with many eggs and sugar. -- At Christmas people eat romeritos , a plant similar to rosemary served with sauce and potatoes; bacalao , dried codfish cooked and served in a sauce of tomatoes, olives, and onions; and all sorts of stuffed turkey -- . In September people commemorate independence and, in central Mexico, eat a sophisticated dish called chile en nogada , a stuffed chilepoblano dressed with a white walnut sauce, red pomegranate, and green parsley, in a representation of the Mexican flag. --

  8. General: Mexicans drink lots of milk, like salty foods more than sweet foods, eat an average of 6 tortillas every day, and have a traditional domestic diet: soup, rice and stew, without leaving out salsa and beans (6). Putting It On, Or In : 77% of the population has tortillas with their food daily, while 58% put salsa on their food each day and 46% have a ration of beans. What Kind of Tortilla Would You Like? : 86% of the population generally eats only corn tortillas. Favorite Fruit : The apple is the favorite fruit of Mexicans, cited as the best by 22% of those surveyed. It is followed by the papaya at 15%. In the center part of the country, apple and papaya are tied for first at 18% of the population. Favorite Vegetable : Lettuce is the vegetable most frequently consumed nationally at 18%, but is followed closely by broccoli (17%) and carrots (17%). Snacking : 43% of the population says they snack between meals, and of those, the largest proportion snack on fruit (45%), followed by junk food (16%). Soda : Central Mexico has the lowest proportion of people that drink soda daily (12%) or one or more times per week (55%). Mexican Eating Habits

  9. Mexican Family Values . The family is at the center of the social structure (4). . Most Mexican families are extremely traditional, with the father as the head, the authority figure and the decision-maker. Wife is homemaker, childcare, holds family together Children cherished Grandparents honored and involved in childcare Traditional health beliefs and practices : Health is gift from God, illness is almost always due to outside forces unless one is punished by God for one’s Sin (4) Prayer is appropriate for all illness Healthcare is traditionally sought from a hierarchy of healers Illness is believed to be due to Excessive emotion, dislocated of organ, magic, imbalance in hot or cold, anglo disease such as pneumonia and appendicitis Curandero- services of a healer Sought when an ailment is unresponsive to other cures such as traditional herbal remedies or homeopathic cures Healing powers may be god-given at birth, learned, or received through a calling Sought for a broad range of complaints, such as marital problems, infertility, alcoholism, business failure, as well as for specific illness such as diabetes and cancer Faith is crucial for success Prayer is primary treatment along with lighting of candles or the use of wood formed in the shape of afflicted body part may be used. Mal de ojo (evil eye) is a condition with supernatural origins It is caused when one person, usually inadvertently, casts a strong, admiring look on another person Irrational behvaior and mental disabilities are often attributed Condition can result in death Curandero is required for treatment Cleansing ritual is performed- sweeping over the ill individual with an egg, then breaking the egg into a saucer to be read to see whether the cure has been effective. Prayers, herb teas, and sweeping with herb bundles may also be part of the treatment. Mal aire (bad air or wind) may cause headaches and colds Mal puesto(witch craft) accounts for certain other disorders, such as swelling, trembling, paralytic twitching

  10. Etiquette & Customs in Mexico Meeting Etiquette • When greeting in social situations, women pat each other on the right forearm or shoulder, rather than shake hands (7) Gift Giving Etiquette • Do not give marigolds as they symbolize death. • Do not give red flowers as they have a negative connotation. • If you receive a gift, open it and react enthusiastically. Dining Etiquette • Arrive 30 minutes late in most places . • Always keep your hands visible when eating. Keep your wrists resting on the edge of the table. • Do not sit down until you are invited to and told where to sit. • Only men give toasts. • It is polite to leave some food on your plate after a meal. Business Negotiation • Negotiations and decisions take a long time. You must be patient. • .Do not include an attorney on your negotiating team.

  11. Description of the recipe: Tostadas • Flavor • lettuce makes it fresh • chewy seasoned tender chicken • smooth guacamole • Texture • -softer texture from the stuffing inside the tortilla • -hard and crispy for the corn tortilla • -chewy shredded chicken breast • Appearance • -round tortilla pasted on with refried beans with stuffing built on top • Cultural significance • -tortilla- usually made from corn which is stable grain for Mexicans since the Aztec period. Mexican food is famous for its stuffed foods such as tacos, burritos, or quesadillas • -guacamole- made from avocado- common vegetable in Mexico • -Beans-ubiquitous in Mexican meals- some Mexicans subsist almost entirely just on beans, corns, and squash • -cilantro- used as common seasoning in Mexican cuisine Ingredients (8). Crispy Tortillas • Vegetable oil for frying • 6 white corn tortillas • Kosher salt for sprinkling Chicken • 3 cups cooked shredded chicken • 1/4 cup olive oil • Kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper • Tostadas • Refried beans La Costena refried pinto beans, warm, • 3 cups of Queso Fresco • 1/2 head iceberg lettuce, cored and shredded • 1 Hass avocado, thinly sliced or guacamole, recipe follows • 2 cups La Costena (Homestyle Mexican salsa) • 1/2 cup Crema Mexicana (sour cream) • 1 tomato small diced (as needed for garnish) • 12 fresh coriander (cilantro) leaves Guacamole • 6 Hass avocados, ripe • 2 1/2 fl. oz. Lime juice • Fresh cilantro, chopped 3 Tbsp • Tomato, seeded, diced 3 Tbsp • Jalapeno, seeded, chopped 1 • Red onions 1/2 a whole • Salt TT

  12. Beans Nutrient Facts: Portion size 1/2 cup Calories: 140 Calories from Fat: 70 Total fat/Sat fat: 8g/1.5g Cholesterol: 0mg Sodium: 490 mg Total Carbs/Dietary fiber: 13g/5g Sugars: 0g Protein: 5g Primary ingredient of tostadas. Beans were domesticated in two places: Andes mountains of Peru, and the Lerma-Santiago basic of Mexico (9). The refried beans has sticky yet soft texture which plays a great role in sticking other desired ingredients on top of the crispy corn tortilla. Health benefits - All legumes provide muscle-building protein, a hefty dose of dietary fiber and are considered to be a good food source of essential minerals (10). -Refried beans can be part of a healthy diet when eaten with other nutrient-dense foods. They are high in fiber and protein -The type of fiber in refried beans is soluble fiber. Soluble fiber is known to lower cholesterol and help prevent heart disease. Other foods rich in soluble fiber include oat bran, barley, nuts, seeds, lentils and peas. Downfall -fiber can cause gas, bloating and abdominal cramps, especially when eaten in large quantities. -Refried beans can be high in sodium--especially canned and commercially-prepared varieties. According to the USDA, consuming too much sodium is unhealthy because it contributes to heart disease and high blood pressure. Cooking refried beans at home is a healthy option because the amount of sodium can be controlled .

  13. Modified Version- Vegetarian Low Fat • Crispy Tortillas • Olive oil for bake • 6 white corn tortillas • Tostadas • Refried beans, Vegetarian Low Fat Tostadas, warm • 3 ounces Reduced fat 4 Cheese Mexican, shredded (about 1/2 cup) • 1/2 head iceberg lettuce, cored and shredded • 1 Hass avocado, thinly sliced or guacamole • 2 cups Pico de gallo, recipe follows • 1/2 cup Plain Greek Yogurt • 1 Tomato • 12 fresh coriander (cilantro) leaves • Pico De Gallo (Tomato salsa) • Tomatoes, seeded, small dice 5 • Red onions, sliced 1 bunch • Garlic cloves, minced 3 • Fresh cilantro, chopped 1/2 bunch • Jalapenos, chopped fine 3 • Lime juice 2 fl. oz. • Salt TT • Vegetarian refried beans were used because traditional refried beans are usually fried in lard or vegetable oil after mashing. Unless labeled "vegetarian" or "low-fat," refried beans may contain lard, a type of unhealthy saturated fat. • Reason for modifying into Healthy Vegetarian version • Mainly for health benefits; a vegetarian diet is typically lower in saturated fat than a diet that includes meat. • A vegetarian diet also typically contains more dietary fiber, folic acid, potassium, magnesium and vitamins C and E than meat-eater’s diet (11). Modified version: vegetarian low fat tostadas

  14. Nutrient profile: original versus modified Original: 1 Tostada (12) Calories 159.5 Fat 7.87g Carbs 17.2g Protein 6g Modified:1 Tostadas Calories 373 Fat 24.8g Carbs 20g Protein 14.63

  15. Health -When defined as being born in the U.S., greater consumption of convenience foods and chocolate was found (4). -When preference for speaking English at home, lower intake of beans and peas was noted. -When acculturation was defined as being born in the U.S. and preference for speaking English at home, a higher consumption of salty snacks, high-fat foods, lower fiber and convenience items was reported. -Total protein intake declined with the length of stay in the U.S. -Deficiencies of calcium and riboflavin due to low consumption of dairy products. -Income or lack of traditional ingredients may limit consumption of nutrients -Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Mexican Americans is approximately 2 times that for whites -Comorbidity in Mexican American elders is high (heart disease, hypertension, arthritis, complications such vision impairment, and reduced mobility -Very high rates of metabolic syndrome (clustering of conditions that lead to type 2 diabetes and heart disease STUDY – Maternal Perception of Child Weight Among Mexicans in California and Mexico -•In Mexico, the mothers tend to think that the chubbier the kid, the healthier the kid is, so they prefer larger kids (13). •Mexican-American mothers underestimate their kids’ weight- they want their children to be smaller than they are now than the mothers in Mexico. •Result of acculturation- different views of body image of their children in mothers of both group- Mexican-American mothers accustomed to westernized cultural norm of how one’s ideal body should look like •Despite the underestimation of children’s weight from the mothers in US, the children in US were at higher risk of being overweight (15 vs. 8%) or overweight (42 vs. 7%) than the children in Mexico. •Result of change in food habit- more westernized nutrition (high fat, calorie, etc.) •Mexico is still a developing country- many kids living in an environment where they have malnutrition diet

  16. Counseling tips • communication style: high context and non-confrontational; a warm, dignified relationship is most effective and crucial in difficult health care situation (4). • Touching a client with a handshake is important, although men should wait for women to extend their hands first. • kindness and graciousness are appreciated • Some Mexican Americans consider prolonged eye contact impolite; however, it is best to maintain eye contact initiated by a client. • Latinos prefer a direct, action-oriented approach instead of lengthy indirect discussion • Modesty and privacy are highly valued; thus a woman may wish to be treated by a female caregiver and a man by a male caregiver. • Cultural beliefs, values, food beliefs should be considered. • cultural beliefs- it is important not to assume adherence to certain folk beliefs, such as the hot cold classification of foods and illness. • ex- some Mexican Americans believe that diabetes, which is an Anglo disease, is caused by eating a diet high in fat and sugar, but also due to experiencing strong emotions or chronic susto. • ex. Mexican mothers think that the chubbier their babies, the healthier their babies are (13).

  17. References • Mexico. Geography Accessed February 6 , 2013. • Climate in Mexico. Focus on Mexico. Accessed on March 16, 2013. • The fact book. Central intelligence Agency. Accessed March 13, 2013. • Kittler PG, Nahikian-Nelms M, Sucher KP, Mexicans and Central Americans. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Food and Culture; 2012:221-243. • Mexico. Countries and their cultures. Accessed on March 16, 2013. • Dishman Peter. Mexican Eating Habits. RufMexico. Accessed on March 13, 2013. • Mexico- Language, Culture, Customs, and Etiquettes. Kwintessential. Accessed on March 16, 2013. • Chicken Tostadas. Food Network. Accessed on February 24, 2013.

  18. Reference-continue • Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). Archaeology. Accessed on March 16, 2013. • Health benefits of refried beans. Accessed on March 16, 2013. • The Statistics of Vegetarian Eaters. Accessed on March 16, 2013. • Food Log. FITDAY. Accessed on March 18, 2013. • Maternal Perception of Child Weight Among Mexicans in California and Mexico. PMC US National Liberary of Medicine National Institutes of Health. Accessed on March 17, 2013.