ecosystems n.
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  1. Ecosystems 5-2.2 Summarize the composition of an ecosystem, considering both biotic factors (including populations to the level or microorganisms and communities) and abiotic factors

  2. Ecosystem Ecosystem – an area made up of all living things and non-living things There are two factors that make up an ecosystem: Biotic Factors – living things in an ecosystem Living things are also called organisms Abiotic factors – non-living things in an ecosystem The biotic factors and the abiotic factors of an ecosystem interact with each other & affect each other.

  3. In this pond, what are some biotic factors?

  4. Examples of some biotic factors: shrubs, grasses, fish, frogs, trees, cattails.

  5. In this pond, what are some abioticfactors?

  6. Examples of some abioticfactors: water, air, temperature, soil, rainfall, and sunlight Together, the abiotic factors make up the nonliving environment that surrounds plants and animals.

  7. Living Things in an Ecosystem The living organisms in an environment can be grouped in two ways: 1. Population • All members of one kind of organism that live in a particular area. • Some examples of a population may be all of the white-tailed deer in a forest, all rainbow trout in a stream, or all of the bald cypress trees in the swamp.

  8. 2. Communities • A group of different populations of organisms. • Some examples of communities are • all of the squirrels, acorn trees, and grass in a park • all of the microorganisms in a pond • or all of the cacti, rattlesnakes, and scorpions in the desert. • Microorganisms are living things that can be a single-celled or multi-celled organism that is too small to be seen without at least a 10x magnifier. We cannot see them with our eyes. • Microorganisms make up part of a community.

  9. Let’s Review What We’ve Learned So Far: • What is the BEST definition of ecosystem? • All the living and nonliving parts of an area • All the living things in an area • A large area such as a forest • A body of water and the organisms living in it • Which is an abiotic factor in an ecosystem? • A tree • A herd of deer • The temperature • All the microorganisms

  10. 3. Which is an example of a community? a. all the rabbits in a forest b. all the living organisms in a forest c. the air, water, and temperature in a forest d. all the microorganisms in a pond 4. Which is NOT a population of an ecosystem? a. all the geese swimming on a pond b. all the deer in a forest c. all the trees in a forest d. all the fish, turtles, and frogs in a pond

  11. Characteristics of Different Ecosystems There are different types of ecosystems: Terrestrial and Aquatic These ecosystems can be divided into two types according to their characteristics… Terrestrial – land-based ecosystem, such as forests or grasslands. Aquatic – water-based ecosystems, such as saltwater (oceans, estuaries) or freshwater (ponds or lakes).

  12. Description of Terrestrial Ecosystem • Forestshave many trees, shrubs, grasses and ferns, and a variety of animals. They usually get more rain than grasslands. Temperatures can vary.  • Grasslandshave fertile soil and are covered with tall grasses. They usually get a medium amount of rain, but less than forests. Temperatures can vary. Some examples of animals that live in the grasslands are prairie dogs, bison, and grasshoppers.

  13. Description of AquaticEcosystem • Lakes and pondsare bodies of freshwater that are surrounded by land. • Ponds are usually shallower than lakes and the temperature of the water usually stays the same from top to bottom. • Plants and algae usually grow along the edges where the water is shallow. • Some examples of animals may be different types of fish, amphibians, ducks, turtles, or beavers. • Oceansare large bodies of saltwater divided by continents. Oceans have many types of ecosystems depending on the conditions (sunlight, temperature, depth, salinity-saltiness) of that part of the ocean.

  14. Estuariesare found where the freshwater rivers meet the oceans. • They are saltier than a river, but not as salty as the ocean. • The amount of salt (salinity) changes as the tides come in and out. • Estuaries contain salt marshes with grasses and marsh plants adapted to this changing water. • Some examples of animals that live in the estuaries/salt marshes may be crabs, shrimp, birds such as blue heron and egrets, and muskrats.

  15. Most organisms live where the ocean is shallow because sunlight can reach deep and the water is warm making food is abundant. • Some examples of organisms that live in the shallow ocean may be drifters (jellyfish or seaweed), swimmers (fish), crawlers (crabs), and those anchored to the ocean floor (corals). Cool Thought

  16. Let’s Review:Create a Brace Map…of the two kinds of ecosystems Go to next slide for second review slide.

  17. Create 2 Tree Maps.1. One to describe parts of a Terrestrial Ecosystem.2. Another to describe parts of an Aquatic Ecosystem.

  18. Interactions in Ecosystems • All organisms need energy to live and grow. • Organisms interact with each other to get the energy they need. They are interdependent on one another. Energy is obtained from food

  19. Producers & Consumers

  20. Let’s make a TREE MAP of the 3 types of Consumers and describe each…Use the information from the next slide to create your tree map in your Science Notebook.

  21. 3 Main Groups of Consumers • Herbivores – animals that eat ONLY plants. Examples: cows, deer, rabbits, zebras, elephants • Carnivores – animals that eat ONLY animals. Examples: wolves, hawks, eagles • Omnivores – animals that eat BOTH animals and plants. Examples: humans, pigs, bears, raccoons.

  22. Decomposers • Decomposers are consumers (like microorganisms, termites, worms, fungi) that get energy from breaking down dead or decaying matter • They receive energy from dead animals and plants • These decomposers speed up the decaying process because they release nutrients back into the food chain (which the plants will use). Receive energy  break down dead organisms  turns into nutrients (from dead plants and animals)

  23. PASS Review Usually no more than 6 plants or animals in a food chain Other grades TV Definition: a series of plants and animals where each organism is a source of food for the next A way to show how energy passes through an ecosystem Food Chains plants use the Sun’s energy to make their own food  then are eaten by one kind of animal  eaten by another kind of animal (the cycle continues) Discovery Education class

  24. Food Webs • A food chain cannot show all the ways organisms in an ecosystem interact to get energy because MOST organisms do not eat just ONE other kind of organism… • SO, a food web is a series of connected food chains.

  25. Predators & Prey Prey is an animal that is hunted and killed as food for other animals. A predator is an animal that kills other animals for food. Bear is a predator. Fish is prey.

  26. Parasites & Hosts • A parasite must live on or inside another organism to get energy. Spends most of its life on a living host. • Hosts are organisms or cells that serve as a home or source of food for a parasite.

  27. Limiting Factors in Ecosystems An ecosystem only has a certain amount food, water, space, and shelter to support a certain number of organisms. • The relationship between numbers of organisms and the resources available in an ecosystem is often described as the balance of nature. • A condition or resource that keeps a population at a certain size is known as a limiting factor. • If any of the limiting factors change, animal and plant populations may also change. • Some changes may cause a population to increase; others may cause a population to decrease. The 4 main needs of an ecosystem: Food water Shelter Space

  28. Problems with Increasing Population • Increases in population may result in overcrowding & if TOO large, won’tbe able to support the environment. Examples that may cause a population to increase may be: plants animals Why is this so? ------------------------------------------------- predators prey Why is this so? -------------------------------------------------- prey predators Why?

  29. Problems with Decreasing Population: • If water supply decreases, the population that needs that water may decrease. Then the population of animals that eat those animals could decrease too. • If trees are cut down or die because of disease or parasites, the population of the animals that use the trees for food or shelter will decrease. • If organisms no longer have enough space to survive, they will either have to move or will die. This change in space may be due to human influence (construction, etc.) or natural disasters.

  30. Let’s Review!!! 1. What are limiting factors? • Resources that flow between organisms in an ecosystem • Conditions that keep a population from growing too large • Parts of an ecosystem’s food web • Conditions that limit human resources 2. A drought strikes a grassland. No rain falls for many months. Which is MOST LIKELY to happen? • The grass and animal populations increase • The grassland becomes overcrowded with grass • There is no change • The grass and animal populations decrease

  31. 3. The population of wolves in an area increases. Wolves eat rabbits. Which change will MOST LIKELY occur? • The tree population will decrease. • The amount of water in the area will increase. • The rabbit population will decrease. • The wolves will learn to eat grass. • Which would be a limiting factor in an ecosystem? a. The wind blowing in the grassland • The number of rocks for shelter in a stream • the temperature of the air in a forest • The color of the flowers in a meadow