Ecosystems Chapter 21
Biomes • Large climatic regions that contain a number of smaller but related ecosystems within them.
8 Major Terrestrial Biomes • Tundra • Taiga • Temperate Forest • Tropical Forest • Temperate Grassland • Savanna • Desert • Chaparral • Biomes are distinguished by the plant and animal life, but are usually identified by their plant life. • Indistinct boundaries • Mountain regions have a variety of biomes due to the change in elevation
Tundra Abiotic Plant Mosses, lichens, grasses, and dwarf woody plants • Temperature • -26°C to 12°C • Rainfall • <25cm • Soil • Moist, thin topsoil over permafrost; low in nutrients; slightly acidic
Tundra Cold, largely treeless biome that forms a continuous belt across northern North America, Europe, and Asia
Tropical Rain Forest Abiotic Plant Broad-leaved evergreen trees and shrubs • Temperature • 20°C to 34°C • Rainfall • 200-400 cm • Soil • Moist, thin topsoil; low in nutrients
Tropical Rain Forests Located in tropical regions along the equator such as parts of Asia, Africa, South America, and Central America. These are the most productive types of biome due to the stable temperatures, abundant rainfall, and sunshine.
Temperate Forest Abiotic Plant Broad-leaved deciduous tress and evergreen coniferous trees • Temperature • 6°C to 28°C • Rainfall • 75-125 cm • Soil • Moist, moderately thick topsoil; moderate nutrient levels
Temperate Forests Located in eastern North America, western and central Europe, and northeastern Asia. This biome has distinct seasons and a moderate climate.
Taiga Abiotic Plant Coniferous evergreen trees • Temperature • -10°C to 14°C • Rainfall • 35-75 cm • Soil • Low in nutrients; highly acidic
Taiga Forested biome located between tundras and temperate regions. Dominated by pine, spruces and firs. Found in northern Europe, Asia, and North America.
Temperate Grasslands Abiotic Plant Dense, tall grasses in moist areas; short grasses in drier areas • Temperature • 0°C to 25°C • Rainfall • 25-75 cm • Soil • Deep layer of topsoil; very rich in nutrients
Temperate Grasslands Once covered large areas in North America, Asia, Europe, Australia, and South America. Usually formed in the middle of the continents. Too dry for trees, but supports grasses that can survive grazing by animals.
Savanna Abiotic Plant Tall grasses and scattered trees • Temperature • 16°C to 34°C • Rainfall • 75-150 cm • Soil • Dry thin topsoil; porous; low in nutrients
Savanna Tropical or temperate grasslands that have scattered deciduous trees and shrubs. Found in Africa, South America, and Australia. Alternating wet and dry seasons.
Chaparral Abiotic Plant Evergreen shrubs and small trees • Temperature • 10°C to 18°C • Rainfall • <25 cm • Soil • Rocky, thin topsoil; low in nutrients
Chaparral Dominated by dense, spiny shrubs with a few scattered clumps of coniferous trees. Mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers with periodic fires. Located in coastal region- like southern California
Desert Abiotic Plant Succulent plants and scattered grasses • Temperature • 7°C to 38°C • Rainfall • <25 cm • Soil • Dry, often sandy; low in nutrients
Desert Receive less than 10 inches of rain each year. Located in North Africa, central Australia, southwestern North America, and eastern Asia. Plants and animals must be able to conserve water.
Aquatic Ecosystems Section 2 Chapter 21
Oceanic Zone • Makes up the deepest parts of the ocean and contains fewest species • Volcanic vents- life based upon chemosynthesis • Made up of two parts: photic zone and aphotic zone
Oceanic Zone Photic Zone Aphotic Zone Sunlight cannot reach No photosynthesis • Receives sunlight • Photosynthesis can take place • Upper few 100 meters
Intertidal Zone • Area along the shoreline that is twice daily covered by water during high tide and exposed to air during low tide
Nertic Zone • Lays between the intertidal zone and the oceanic zone • Shallow, covers the continental shelf
Estuaries • Where freshwater rivers and streams flow into the sea • Examples: bays, mud flats, mangrove swamp forests, and salt marshes
Freshwater Zones • Lakes and Ponds • Land-locked areas of water • Can be eutrophic or oligotrophic • Rivers and streams • Freshwater that flows down a gradient, or slope, towards its mouth • Freshwater Wetlands • Areas of land that are covered with fresh water for at least part of each year • Examples: swamps and marshes