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Group CLS 6805.01 Dr. Rushing. Week One. Increasing use of Groups. In the U.S. and abroad Used for therapeutic and/or educational purposes Used in a variety of settings Often more effective than the individual approach May need training beyond graduate school. Types of Groups.

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increasing use of groups
Increasing use of Groups
  • In the U.S. and abroad
  • Used for therapeutic and/or educational purposes
  • Used in a variety of settings
  • Often more effective than the individual approach
  • May need training beyond graduate school
types of groups
Types of Groups
  • Group Counseling
  • Group Psychotherapy
  • Psychoeducational Groups
  • Task Facilitation Groups
counseling groups
Counseling Groups
  • Preventive and Remedial aims:
    • Focus may be educational, personal, social, vocational
    • Members largely determine content & aims
    • Involves interpersonal process stressing conscious thoughts, feelings, & behaviors
    • Members don’t require extensive personality reconstruction; tends to be growth orientation
    • Group leaders facilitate interaction among members; assist members to establish personal goals
advantages of counseling groups
Advantages of Counseling Groups
  • Members may achieve personal goals
  • Provides a natural laboratory in a safe environment
  • Benefits for specific populations

• Groups for children

• Groups for adolescents

• Groups for college students

• Groups for older people

psychotherapy groups
Psychotherapy Groups
  • Focus on remediation, treatment, and personality reconstruction
  • Awareness in both past and present
  • Designed to correct emotional and behavioral problems
  • Techniques include inducing regression to earlier experiences
  • Tend to be long-term
  • Clinical or counseling psychologists, licensed mental health counselors
psychoeducational groups
Psychoeducational Groups
  • Contain content themes that provide structure for sessions
  • Aim to help members develop specific skills and gain information; short term.
  • Examples: social skills training; assertiveness training; stress management; cognitive therapy
    • Divorce & anger management in schools
    • HIV/AIDS support group
    • Domestic violence group
task work groups
Task/Work Groups
  • Center around decision-making and problem-solving
    • Assist task forces, committees
  • Leaders focus on principles of group process to foster reaching work goals
    • If interpersonal issues within the group are ignored, cooperation and collaboration will not develop
    • guiding principles of warm-up, action, & closure
key characteristics
Key Characteristics
  • Key personal characteristics of the effective group leader
    • Presence
    • Personal power
    • Courage
    • Willingness to challenge oneself
    • Authenticity
    • Sense of identity
    • Inventiveness and creativity

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issues for beginning group leaders
Issues For Beginning Group Leaders
  • Anxiety
    • Self awareness
  • Self-disclosure
    • Too little
    • Too much
  • Challenges of working in a system
    • Institutional demands and policies
    • Cost
    • Inadequate training
group leadership skills
Group Leadership Skills
  • Active listening, restating, and clarifying
  • Summarizing
  • Questioning
  • Interpreting
  • Confronting
  • Reflecting feelings
  • Empathizing and supporting
  • Facilitating
  • Linking
  • Initiating
  • Setting goals
  • Evaluating
  • Giving feedback
  • Suggesting
  • Protecting
  • Disclosing
  • Modeling
  • Linking
  • Blocking
  • Terminating
skills for opening closing groups
Skills for Opening & Closing Groups
  • Procedures for opening a group session
    • Have members briefly check in
    • Link sessions
    • Be attentive to unresolved issues from prior sessions
    • Create an agenda
  • Procedures for closing a group session
    • Encourage members to identify what they learned, how they perceived the session, summarize the group process & progress toward their goals
    • Members may want to identify topics for next session
    • Group leaders may express their own reactions to session
diversity competence
Diversity Competence
  • Entails appreciating and understanding diversity in culture, ethnicity, race, gender, class, religion, sexual identity, age, & physical characteristics or limitations and conceptualizing theories and techniques in a multicultural context
  • Three areas involved in diversity competence:

• Beliefs and attitudes of the group leader

• Knowledge to become an effective leader

• Skills and intervention strategies

multicultural counseling
Multicultural Counseling
  • Become aware of your biases and values
  • Attempt to understand the world from the member’s vantage point
  • Gain knowledge about the dynamics of oppression, racism, discrimination, and stereotyping
  • Study the traditions and values of the members of your group
  • Learn general knowledge, but avoid stereotyping
  • Be open to learning from your members
  • Recognize that diversity can enhance the group process
ethical issues in group work
Ethical Issues in Group Work
  • Rights of group participants
  • Psychological risks in groups
  • Socializing among group members
  • Ethics of group leader’s actions
  • Impact of leader’s values on the group
  • Issues in multicultural group counseling
  • Uses and misuses of group techniques
  • Group leader competence
  • Liability and malpractice
rights of group members
Rights of Group Members
  • Informed consent
    • Pregroup disclosures – appropriateness, information, purpose, ground rules, psychological risks, rights and responsibilities
    • Rights during group – expectations, assistance, reasonable safeguards to minimize risks, confidentiality, dignity, respect
  • Involuntary groups
    • Informed consent
    • Enlist cooperation
  • Freedom to leave a group
  • Freedom from coercion
  • Right to confidentiality
    • Exceptions – harm to self or others, issue in a court action
    • With minors – in schools
psychological risks in groups
Psychological Risks in Groups
  • Types of risks
    • Life changes that cause disruptions
    • Hostile and destructive confrontations
    • Scapegoating
    • Harmful socializing among members
  • Ways of reducing risks
    • Know members’ limits
    • Respect their requests
    • Invitational style vs. dictatorial style
    • Describe behavior rather than judging
other ethical issues
Other Ethical Issues
  • Group leader’s actions
    • Awareness of and conformity to ethical standards
  • Group leader’s values
    • Imposing vs. exposing values
  • Socializing among group members
    • Positive or negative
  • Multicultural ethics
    • Awareness of cultural values and how they can influence group processes and dynamics
    • Transcend cultural encapsulation
    • Avoid imposing worldview on members
using group techniques
Using Group Techniques
  • Principles for using group techniques effectively
    • Have a rationale for technique
    • Avoid misusing techniques to influence members in a direction
    • Techniques are best used to highlight material members bring up
    • Techniques are for helping members acquire self-understanding
    • Modify certain techniques based on cultural background of a member
    • Techniques are invitational—they can be a collaborative effort between leader and member
group leader competence
Group Leader Competence
  • Determine level of competence
    • Training in use of technique
    • Theoretical and therapeutic rationale
    • Experience technique as member of group
    • Continuing education
  • Professional training standards
    • Core knowledge & skill competencies
    • Specialized training
  • Adjuncts to training of group counselors
    • Participation in personal counseling
    • Participation in group
    • Participation in experiential training workshops
liability and malpractice
Liability and Malpractice
  • Be aware of local, state laws & institutional policies
  • Screen & prepare group members
  • Develop written informed consent procedures – confidentiality, etc.
  • Have adequate training
  • Consult with colleagues when warranted
  • P. 68 for other guidelines
  • Become familiar with the Professional Standards for Training of Group Workers (Association for Specialists in Group Work) (ASGW, 2000) http://www.asgw.org/training_standards.htm
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