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BELLWORK. Minerals - A naturally formed, inorganic solid that has a definite crystal line structure . Inorganic – was never living. Minerals of the earth’s crust. Chapter 13 – Section 1. ESSENTIAL QUESTION .

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  • Minerals - A naturally formed, inorganic solid that has a definite crystal line structure.
  • Inorganic – was never living.
minerals of the earth s crust

Minerals of the earth’s crust

Chapter 13 – Section 1

essential question
  • How do the physical characteristics and chemical properties of minerals determine how they are used by humans?
Mineral 
  • A naturally formed, inorganic solid that has a definite crystalline structure.
    • Organic – derived from living things.
    • Inorganic – not made of living things.
to find out if something is a mineral ask these 4 questions
To Find Out if Something is a Mineral, Ask These 4 Questions… 
  • Is it a non-living thing?
    • All minerals are inorganic.
  • Is it a solid?
    • All minerals are solids.
  • Does it have a crystalline structure?
    • Minerals are crystals and have a repeating inner structure.
  • Is it formed in nature?
    • Minerals can not be man-made.
crystalline structure
Crystalline Structure
  • A crystal’s shape is determined by the arrangement of the atoms or molecules within the crystal.

Quartz - Hexagonal

Salt – Isometric (cubic)

Copper Sulfate - Triclinic

2 groups of minerals
2 Groups of Minerals
  • Silicates - Minerals that contain a combination of silicon, oxygen and one or more metals.
      • Quartz
      • Feldspar
      • Mica
  • Nonsilicates – Minerals that do not contains compounds of silicon and oxygen.
    • Native Elements – minerals composed of only one element such as copper.
    • Carbonates – minerals that contain carbon and oxygen in their chemical makeup such as calcite.
    • Halides – form when fluorine, chlorine, iodine or bromine combine with sodium, potassium or calcium such as fluorite.
    • Oxides – form when an element combines with oxygen such as corundum.
    • Sulfates – minerals that contain sulfur and oxygen such as gypsum.
    • Sulfides – minerals that contain elements such as lead, iron or nickel, that combine with sulfur such as galena.
  • What are the 4 questions you must ask to determine if something is a mineral?
identifying minerals1
Identifying Minerals
  • Color
  • Luster
  • Streak
  • Cleavage and Fracture
  • Hardness
  • Density
  • Special Properties
  • Not the best way to identify a mineral.
  • The way a mineral reflects light.
  • The mineral in its powdered form.
cleavage and fracture
Cleavage and Fracture
  • Cleavage – mineral breaks along smooth, flat surfaces.
  • Fracture – mineral breaks along either curved or irregular surfaces.

Chonchoidal fracture is a smooth curved fracture.

  • Minerals resistance to being scratched.
    • Mohs’ Hardness Scale (1 softest to 10 hardest)
          • Talc
          • Gypsum
          • Calcite
          • Fluorite
          • Apatite
          • Feldspar
          • Quartz
          • Topaz
          • Corundum
          • Diamond

Fingernail 2.5

Penny 3

Knife Blade 5.5

Glass 6-7

Steel File 7+

  • That
  • Girl
  • Can
  • Fly
  • Across
  • Oceans
  • Quietly
  • Trailing
  • Cosmic
  • Dust
special properties
Special Properties
  • Fluorescence
  • Magnetism
  • Chemical Reaction
  • Taste
  • Optical Properties
  • Radioactivity
mohs chant
Mohs’ Chant

Color, luster, hardness, streak (repeat)

Mineral I.D. isn’t for the meek (repeat)

Color isn’t a reliable sight (repeat)

Luster is how it reflects light (repeat)

Streak is the mineral in powdered form (repeat)

1 to 10 is hardness norm (repeat)

Can it scratch it? (repeat)

Fingernail 1, 2

Penny 3, 4

Knife blade 5, 6

Steel file 7, 8

It can scratch glass 9, 10

  • List the minerals of the Mohs’ Hardness Scale in order from 1 to 10.
the formation of minerals
The Formation of Minerals


Surface water and groundwater carry dissolved materials into lakes and seas where they crystallize on the bottom.

Evaporating Salt Water

When a body of salt water dries up, minerals are left behind and crystallize as the water evaporates.

Hot Water Solutions

Groundwater works its way downward and is heated by magma. It then reacts with minerals to form a hot liquid solution. Dissolved metals and other elements crystallize out o the hot fluid to form new minerals.

Metamorphic Rock

When changes in pressure, temperature, or chemical makeup alter a rock, metamorphism takes place.


As magma rises upward through the crust, it sometimes stops moving before it reaches the surface and cools slowly, forming millions of mineral crystals. Eventually the entire magma body solidifies to form a pluton.


As magma moves upward, it can form teardrop-shaped bodies called pegmatities.

types of mines
Types of Mines
  • Surface Mines
    • Located at or near the surface.
      • Open pits
      • Surface coal mines
      • Quarries
  • Subsurface Mines
    • Located deep within the Earth.
      • Shaft mines
      • Slope mines
      • Drift mines
the effects of mining
The Effects of Mining

Before After

responsible mining
Responsible Mining
  • Reclamation
    • The process of returning land to its original condition after mining is completed.