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Atoms. What is an Atom?. The smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same substance. . There are 20,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 atoms in every penny. That number is equal to twenty thousand billion billion atoms!.

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What is an atom
What is an Atom?

  • The smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same substance.

There are 20,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 atoms in every penny. That number is equal to twenty thousand billion billion atoms!


How many atoms are in the thickness of aluminum foil
How many atoms are in the thickness of Aluminum Foil?

This Aluminum Foil is 50,000 atoms thick.


Nucleus
Nucleus

  • The atoms center region made up of protons and neutrons.


Atoms
Atom

  • atom


So what are atoms made of
So what are atoms made of?

  • Proton= Positively charged= +1

  • Neutron=Neutral or no charge= 0

  • Electron=Negatively charged= -1


Where are electrons found
Where are Electrons found?

  • Electron Cloud: regions around the nucleus where electrons are likely to be found.



Mass of atom
Mass of Atom

  • Measured in AMU’s: Atomic Mass Unit

  • Protons=1 AMU

  • Neutrons=1 AMU

  • Electrons= O AMU


Hey everybody lets draw some atoms
Hey Everybody! Lets Draw Some Atoms!

  • Turn to page 794, find the element Nitrogen.

  • Using the periodic table, determine the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in Nitrogen.


Let s draw some atoms
Let’s Draw Some Atoms

  • Beryllium (Isotope of +1)

  • Lithium (Charge of +1)

  • Fluorine (Charge of -1)



Isotopes
Isotopes

  • Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons as normal but have different numbers of neutrons.


Atomic mass
Atomic Mass

  • Is the weighted average of the masses of all the isotopes of that element.


What causes atoms to bond
What causes atoms to Bond?

  • Valence electron: an electron in the outermost energy level.

  • Atoms want to fill their outermost level or have a full set of valence electrons.


Electron orbital
Electron Orbital

  • Closest to nucleus: Holds two electrons

  • Next level out: holds 8 electrons

  • Next level out: holds 8 electrons


Covalent bonding
Covalent Bonding

  • When two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.


Covalent bonds
Covalent Bonds

  • Formed between non metals.


Best friends forever
Best Friends Forever

  • Covalent and Ionic Bonding



Ionic bond
Ionic Bond

  • When electrons are transferred from one atom to another.

  • This allows both atoms to have a full set of valence electrons.


Atoms
Ion

  • An ion is formed when an atom gains or loses an electron.

  • Negative: when atom gains electron

  • Positive: when atom gives away electron


So what causes them to bond
So what causes them to bond?

  • Opposites attract, positive and negative ions (atoms) attract to each other.

  • Formed between a metal and a nonmetal.

  • Mr. Excitement


Ionic bonds
Ionic Bonds

  • Form a structure called a crystal lattice, a large symmetrical, repeating , 3D pattern

  • Crystal Lattice


Metallic bond
Metallic Bond

  • Formed by attraction between positively charged metal ions and electrons in the metal.

  • metallic bonding



Chemical formula
Chemical Formula

  • Combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance.

  • H20=water


Chemical equation
Chemical Equation

  • Uses chemical symbols and formulas as a shortcut to describe a chemical reaction.

  • Ex: 2H + O= H2O


Chemical equation1
Chemical Equation

  • Reactants= starting materials

  • Products= formed after reaction

  • Reactants must equal products=balanced


2h o h 2 o
2H + O= H2O

  • Reactants = 2H, O

  • Product: H20


Law of conservation of mass
Law of Conservation of Mass

  • Mass cannot be created or destroyed, but changed from one form to another.

  • Antoine Lavoisier