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Manual Handling is Associated with. 27% of all industrial injuries 670,000 injuries/yr in the United States 60% of all money spent on industrial injuries 93,000,000 lost workdays/yr. Approaches to Recommendations. Biomechanical Physiological Psychophysical. Manual Handling Variables.

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manual handling is associated with
Manual Handling is Associated with
  • 27% of all industrial injuries
  • 670,000 injuries/yr in the United States
  • 60% of all money spent on industrial injuries
  • 93,000,000 lost workdays/yr
approaches to recommendations
Approaches to Recommendations
  • Biomechanical
  • Physiological
  • Psychophysical
manual handling variables
Manual Handling Variables
  • Individual
  • Technique
  • Task
pushing and pulling strength factors
Pushing and Pulling Strength Factors
  • Handles
  • One hand vs. two hands
  • Body posture
  • Application height
  • Direction
push pull summary
Push/Pull Summary
  • Two hands are usually better than one.
  • Force capability goes down as it is exerted more often.
  • Initial force capability is higher than sustained capability.
  • Pushing capability is higher than pulling.
  • Push at waist level; pull at thigh level.
task modifications
Task Modifications
  • Measure the force required to move all wheeled equipment; periodically check the forces.
  • Install vertical push/pull bars on carts.
  • Push rather than pull loads.
  • Avoid muscle-powered pushing and pulling for ramps, long distances, and frequent moves.
  • Use mechanical aids and momentum.
  • Reduce force by reducing friction.
holding
Holding
  • Problems
    • Holding gives a static load combining body weight and object weight.
    • Low-back pain arises from spine biomechanics.
  • Solutions
    • Reduce the magnitude and duration of the torque.
    • Use balancers.
    • Limit high loads to short durations.
carrying guidelines
Carrying Guidelines
  • Replace carrying with pushing or pulling.
  • Minimize the moment arm of the load relative to the spine.
  • Consider carrying large loads occasionally rather than light loads often.
  • Use teamwork.
  • Consider using balancers, manipulators, conveyors, or robots.
  • Reduce lifting by raising the initial location.
  • Avoid carrying objects up and down stairs.
lifting guidelines
Lifting Guidelines
  • 51 lbs is the maximum that can be lifted or lowered (load constant).
  • Recommended weight limit (RWL) is load constant multiplied by various factors.
  • Lifting index =

load weight / RWL

niosh lifting example
NIOSH lifting example
  • At initiation,
    • Horizontal location, H1 = 10 in.
    • Vertical location, V1 = 40 in.
    • Vertical location, V2 = 51 in.
    • Angle of asymmetry, A = 0
    • Frequency, F = 12 /min.
    • Load = 14 lbs.
    • Duration = 2 hr.
  • What is the RWL?
  • What is the Lifting Index, LI?
basic niosh lifting formula pg 269
Basic NIOSH Lifting Formula (pg. 269)

RWL = LC × HM × VM × DM × FM × AM × CM

  • RWL = recommended weight limit
  • LC = load constant (51 lbs.)
  • HM = horizontal multiplier
  • VM = vertical multiplier
  • DM = distance multiplier
  • FM = frequency multiplier
  • AM = asymmetry multiplier
  • CM = coupling multiplier
multiplier formulas
Multiplier Formulas

Horizontal multiplier

HM = BIL / H

  • BIL = Body interference limit
  • H = Horizontal location

Vertical multiplier

VM = 1 – VC × | V – KH |

  • VC = Vertical constant

= 0.0075for inches, 0.003 for cm.

  • V = Vertical location
  • KH = Knuckle height (assume 30 in.)
multiplier formulas cont
Multiplier Formulas (cont.)

Distance multiplier

DM = .82 + DC/D

  • DC = Distance constant

= 1.8 for inches, 4.5 for cm.

  • D = Vertical travel distance

Asymmetry multiplier

AM = 1 – .0032A

  • A = Angle of symmetry
multiplier formulas cont1
Multiplier Formulas (cont.)

Frequency multiplier

See Table 15.9.

  • Lifting frequency = mean number of lifts in a 15-minute period
  • Lifting duration /session in hours may be:
    • Short = .001 h to ≤ 1 h
      • with recovery time of ≥ 1.2 × duration
    • Moderate = >1 h ≤ 2 h
      • with recovery time of ≥ .3 × duration
    • Long = >2 h but ≤ 8 h
multiplier formulas cont2
Multiplier Formulas (cont.)

Coupling multiplier

See Table 15.10, 15.11, Fig. 15.13

  • Depends on:
    • Height of initial and final hand–container coupling
    • Whether coupling is good, fair, or poor
force limits
Force Limits

FL = A × F × DIST

    • A = Age factor
    • F = Frequency factor
    • DIST = Distance factor
  • Differences between force limits and NIOSH guidelines.
    • Different factors
    • Different criteria
    • FL permissible load ~1.8 times that of NIOSH
resources
Resources
  • Manual Handing Guide (Mital et al.)
  • Biomechanical software
    • ErgoIntelligence MMH
    • 2D Static Strength Prediction Program
    • 3D Static Strength Prediction Program
guidelines for manual handling
Guidelines for Manual Handling
  • Three categories:
    • Select individual
      • Select strong people based on tests.
    • Teach technique
      • Bend the knees.
      • Don’t slip or jerk.
      • Don’t twist during the move.
    • Design the job
      • Use machines.
      • Move small weights often.
      • Get a good grip.
      • Put a compact load in a convenient container.
      • Keep the load close to the body.
      • Work at knuckle height.