WHY? More factories = more workers…USA land of opportunity Why? People leaving farms for the city and factory jobs Resources Why? New immigrants flooded the cities in search of work. Why? People losing farms & going broke…Factory jobs pay more, “easier” life in cities
People move to the US for better jobs, religious freedom stable government, and/or social advancement. People moved from rural areas to cities for jobs in factories OVER POPULATED CITIES POVERTY CRIME DISEASE results
Push & Pull factors • Push Factor Reason(s) to leave ones birth country to live in a foreign country • Pull factors • Reason(s) a foreign country inspires people from their home country Get out Come here
Immigration • Push Factors • Poverty • Worker Uncertainty • Political tyranny • Religious Oppression • Pull Factors • Land and Work • Better standard of living • Stable government • Opportunity for Social advancement
Steerage • Why travel in these conditions? • Difficult & Expensive to get to US • What was the journey like • Travel was basic, cheap, crowded, miserable • Filthy cramped living conditions. • Trip took 7 to 21 days • RATS-LICE-Disease-Death
Immigration E. & S. European Old Immigrants N & W Europe Asians European Latin America New Immigrants S & E Europe
Ellis Island • Processing center for immigrants New York harbor • Frantic pace, Lost Identities, Health Inspections
Urban Politics • Cities grow faster than government • Political Machine • Informal political group • Gain & keep power • Got things for the working class. • Jobs, homes, food, clothes, heat, protection, etc… • Positive note • Provided necessary services & helped assimilate the new city dwellers. • Party Bossreceived votes for Providing “things” • Once elected used political power for greed. • Grafts=getting money through dishonest or questionable means. • Bribes
Tammany Hall William “Boss” Tweed • Tweed Courthouse • One of the most corrupt politicians in history • Grossly overpaid contractors for work • 13 million. • 180,000(2.5mil) for 3 tables & 40 chairs. • Imprisoned for corruption. Died. • Thomas Nast Political cartoons exposed corruption
Nativist- English/Protestant descent Extreme dislike of foreigners Focused on Jews Catholics E. Europeans Asians Immigrants Worked for less money Were easily replaceable Had Communist & Anarchist ideas We were here first…Protect the American Worker
Nativism • Labor Unions anti-immigration • Anti-Immigration Org • American Protective Association • Workingman’s Party of California • Chinese Exclusion Acts • Banned for 10 years • Chinese in US could not become citizens
MARXIST Immigrants = revolution, communism,Anarchy • Communism ---> classless society • People control everything • Inspires Revolution • Anarchist • No government • Inspires Revolution ANARCHISTS
Urban American Social Issues • Immigration • Urbanization • Gilded Age • Social Darwinism • Early Reform
Urbanization: Ethnic Cities Positives Negatives Slow to assimilate to America culture Segregation led to violence Irish vs. Italians Polish vs. Russians Slow to learn ENGLISH Cant communicate Hard to find a job Basic needs • Lived with similar people who shared • Language • Customs • Culture • Sense of Security • Sense of Belonging
Gilded Age • Coined by Mark Twain • Gilded = Covered in Gold • New Inventions • Skyscrapers • Electricity • Great wealth • Covered • Poverty • Crime • Corruption • Gap between rich and poor GILDED AGE
Urban Problems • 4 Major Problems: • Overcrowding • Crime/Violence • Sanitation • Political Corruption
Urbanization • Immigrants Lacked • Money • Cant buy land or farms • Education • Forced to stay in cities. • Long Hours • Little Pay • Poor Working conditions
Urbanization • Cities • Overcrowding • Plumbing • Running water • Electricity • Cultural Centers • Museums • Libraries • Theaters
Ethnic Cities • Gangs & Crime • 5 points • Promotes hostilities between other ethnicities & natives.
Class Division • High Society • Wealthiest Families • Lived in the heart of the city. • Extravagant homes • Moved to the outskirts to avoid overcrowding….This happens again in the 1940s and 50s
Class Division • Middle Class • Doctors • Lawyers • Teachers • Architects • “streetcar suburbs”
Class Division • Working Class • Tenements • Unsanitary-diseases • Crowded- many families share housing • Dangerous-crime, alcohol, gangs
Individualism • Belief that despite their origins, one could rise to as far as talent and commitment would take them.
Social Darwinism • Herbert Spencer • On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection” • Natural Selection – plant and animal evolution (survival of the fittest) • Social, Political & Economic issues • Laissez-faire • Rockefeller • Standard Oil • “I am rich because I am smarter and better.”
Gospel of Wealth • Andrew Carnegie • Philanthropy • increase the well-being of society, by charitable aid or donations • Duty of the wealthy
Political Reform • Patronage- Gov. jobs are given to the supporters of the winning party. ***(spoils system) • 1880 Garfield assassinated. • 1883 Pendleton Act- • Ended spoils system • Testing and competition.
Urban Reform • Salvation Army- Welfare organization, offered aid and religious counseling to the poor. • YMCA- helped workers & poor through bible study, citizenship training & group activities.
Early Reformers • Jacob Riis- Immigrant issues “How the Other Half Lives” • Jane Addams - Hull House • Settlement home for Immigrants, Women & Children • Lewis Hines - Child Labor • Robert Lafollette Political reformer. Laboratory of Democracy