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Chapter 3: Planning Network Protocols and Compatibility. Protocol. A protocol consists of guidelines for: How data is formatted into discrete units called packets and frames How packets and frames are transmitted across one or more networks

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Chapter 3: Planning Network Protocols and Compatibility

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    1. Chapter 3: Planning Network Protocols and Compatibility

    2. Protocol • A protocol consists of guidelines for: • How data is formatted into discrete units called packets and frames • How packets and frames are transmitted across one or more networks • How packets and frames are interpreted at the receiving end

    3. Packets and Frames • Packets and frames are units of data transmitted from one networked computer or device to another. • Although packets and frames are often used to have the same meaning, there is a difference. Packets operate at a higher communication layer and contain routing information.

    4. General Sections in Packets and Frames • Header • Data • Trailer or footer

    5. Packet and Frame Format Figure 3-1 Basic packet and frame format

    6. Network Design • The basic design of a network is its topology • Topology: The physical layout of the cable and the logical path followed by network packets and frames sent on the cable

    7. Local Area Network • Local area network (LAN): Joins computers, printers, and other computer equipment within a limited service area and generally employs only one topology

    8. Example of a LAN Figure 3-2 A LAN in a building

    9. Metropolitan Area Network • Metropolitan area network (MAN): A network that links multiple LANs within a large city or metropolitan area

    10. Example of a MAN University chemistry building Research hospital Pharmaceutical company MAN connecting buildings in a city

    11. Enterprise Network Enterprise Network: A network that often reaches throughout a large area, such as a college campus, a city, or across several states. A distinguishing factor of an enterprise network is that it brings together an array of network resources such as many kinds of servers, mainframes, printers, network devices, intranets, and the Internet

    12. Typical Resources in an Enterprise Network Figure 3-3 Resources in an enterprise network

    13. Wide Area Network • Wide Area Network (WAN): A far-reaching system of networks that can extend across state lines and across continents

    14. Example of a WAN WAN across a continent

    15. Network Interface Card Communication Medium Options • Coaxial cable (thick and thinnet) • Twisted-pair (shielded and unshielded) • Fiber-optic • Wireless (infrared, radio wave, microwave, satellite)

    16. Connecting a Medium to a NIC Figure 3-4 Connecting cable to a NIC

    17. Device Address • Each NIC has a physical or device address that is burned into a PROM on the card • Media access control (MAC) address is another way of describing the device address

    18. Ethernet and Token Ring • Ethernet: A network transport system that uses a carrier sensing and collision detection method to regulate data transmissions • Token ring: A network transport method that uses a token, which is passed from node to node, to coordinate data transmissions

    19. NDIS • Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS): • developed by Microsoft and 3COM • enables communication between a NIC and a protocol • enables the use of multiple protocols on the same network

    20. NDIS Architecture Figure 3-5 Binding a protocol to a NIC

    21. ODI • Open Datalink Interface (ODI) driver: • Novell NetWare • transport multiple protocols on the same network

    22. Microsoft-Supported Communication Protocols

    23. Microsoft-Supported Protocols

    24. TCP/IP • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) portion performs extensive error checking to ensure that data is delivered successfully • Internet Protocol (IP) portion consists of rules for packaging data and ensuring that it reaches the correct destination address

    25. Dotted Decimal Notation • Dotted Decimal Notation: • four octets • 100000110.11011110.1100101.00000101 • converted to decimal (e.g.,

    26. Unicasting and Multicasting • Unicast • sent to each client • e.g. a multimedia presentation • Multicast • sent to all requesting clients as a group (reducing the total network traffic)

    27. Unicasting and Multicasting Compared Figure 3-6 Unicasting compared to multicasting

    28. Subnet Mask • Subnet mask: • used to indicate the class of addressing on a network • divides a network into subnetworks • controls traffic and enforce security

    29. Configuring the IP Address and Subnet Mask Figure 3-7 IP address and subnet mask setup

    30. Static and Dynamic Addressing • Dynamic addressing: • automatically assigning an IP address to a network host • Static addressing: • manually assigning an IP address to a network host

    31. TCP/IP Advantages • Well-suited for medium and large networks • Designed for routing • high degree of reliability • Used worldwide for directly connecting to the Internet and by Web servers • Enables lower TCO on Microsoft networks

    32. TCP/IP Advantages • Compatible with standard tools for analyzing network performance • Parallel ability to use DHCP and WINS through a Windows 2000 server • Ability for diverse networks and operating systems to communicate • Compatible with Microsoft Windows Sockets

    33. TCP/IP Disadvantages • More difficult to set up and maintain than other protocols • Somewhat slower than IPX/SPX and NetBEUI on networks with light to medium traffic

    34. Routing via TCP/IP Figure 3-8 Router forwarding packets to a designated network

    35. Planning Tip • For medium and large sized networks, plan to use TCP/IP because it enables you to manage and secure network traffic through creating subnets

    36. Protocols and Applications in the TCP/IP Suite

    37. Protocols and Applications in the TCP/IP Suite

    38. Protocols and Applications in the TCP/IP Suite

    39. Protocols and Applications in the TCP/IP Suite

    40. Protocols and Applications in the TCP/IP Suite

    41. IPX/SPX • IPX: • developed by Novell • particularly for NetWare versions before version 5 • SPX: • connection-oriented protocol used for network transport when there is a particular need for data reliability

    42. NWLink • A network protocol that simulates the IPX/SPX protocol for Microsoft Windows 95, 98, NT, and 2000 communications with Novell NetWare file servers and compatible devices

    43. Client Service for NetWare (CSNW) Components • Client Service for NetWare • NWLink IPX/SPX • NWLink NetBIOS

    44. CSNW Installed in Windows 2000 Figure 3-9 Windows 2000 with CSNW components installed

    45. Configuring NWLink • Configure three elements: • Frame type • Network number • Internal network number

    46. When to Configure the Internal Network Number • When the NetWare server that is accessed uses two or more frame types • When the Windows 2000 host has two or more NICs and NWLink is bound to more than one of the NICs • When an application uses NetWare’s Service Advertising Protocol (SAP)

    47. When to Use NWLink • To access a NetWare server • pre-version 5 • To set up Windows 2000 as a gateway to a NetWare server • To enable NetWare clients to access a Windows 2000 server

    48. Planning Tip • If you upgrade NetWare servers to version 5.x or higher, convert from IPX/SPX to TCP/IP for better network communication options and better compatibility with Windows 2000 servers

    49. NetBIOS • A combination software interface and network naming convention • Available in Windows 2000 through the files Netbt.sys, NetBIOS.sys, and NetBIOS.dll

    50. NetBEUI • NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI): A non-routable communications protocol native to early Microsoft network communications