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mining & resource extraction

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mining & resource extraction

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  1. agriculture urbanization industry downstream impoundment watershed & riparian devegetation upstream impoundment forestry & silviculture mining & resource extraction human activity ↓ oxygen in discharged waters channel alteration ↑ chemical contaminants ↑ oxygen production ↑ biochemical oxygen demand ↑ delivery of chemicals, organic material, & nutrients to stream ↑ chemical oxygen demand ↑ aeration ↑ organic loading ↓ aeration ↑ nutrients additional step in causal pathway source impoundment size & type of release modifying factor ↑ temperature ↑ ionic strength LEGEND ↑ sediment ↓ dissolved oxygen (water or sediment) ↑ DO fluctuation (water or sediment ↑ dissolved oxygen (water or sediment) ↑ supersaturation ↑ respiratory stress proximate stressor mode of action ↑ oxidation (↑ Eh) ↑ reduction (↓ Eh) interacting stressor response Simple conceptual diagram for DISSOLVED OXYGEN Developed 7/2007 by Kate Schofield & Suzanne Marcy; modified 6/2010 ↑ mortality ∆ behavior ∆ ecosystem processes ∆ population & community structure