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Mining Billion-Node Graphs - Patterns and Algorithms. Christos Faloutsos CMU. Thank you!. Henry Kautz Melissa Singkhamsack. Resource. Open source system for mining huge graphs: PEGASUS project (PEta GrAph mining System) www.cs.cmu.edu/~pegasus code and papers. Roadmap.

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## Mining Billion-Node Graphs - Patterns and Algorithms

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**Mining Billion-Node Graphs - Patterns and Algorithms**Christos Faloutsos CMU**Thank you!**• Henry Kautz • Melissa Singkhamsack C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Resource**Open source system for mining huge graphs: PEGASUS project (PEta GrAph mining System) • www.cs.cmu.edu/~pegasus • code and papers C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Roadmap**• Introduction – Motivation • Problem#1: Patterns in graphs • Problem#2: Tools • Problem#3: Scalability • Conclusions C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Graphs - why should we care?**Food Web [Martinez ’91] >$10B revenue >0.5B users Internet Map [lumeta.com] C. Faloutsos (CMU)**T1**D1 ... ... DN TM Graphs - why should we care? • IR: bi-partite graphs (doc-terms) • web: hyper-text graph • ... and more: C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Graphs - why should we care?**• ‘viral’ marketing • web-log (‘blog’) news propagation • computer network security: email/IP traffic and anomaly detection • .... • Subject-verb-object -> graph • Many-to-many db relationship -> graph C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Outline**• Introduction – Motivation • Problem#1: Patterns in graphs • Static graphs • Weighted graphs • Time evolving graphs • Problem#2: Tools • Problem#3: Scalability • Conclusions C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Problem #1 - network and graph mining**• What does the Internet look like? • What does FaceBook look like? • What is ‘normal’/‘abnormal’? • which patterns/laws hold? C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Problem #1 - network and graph mining**• What does the Internet look like? • What does FaceBook look like? • What is ‘normal’/‘abnormal’? • which patterns/laws hold? • To spot anomalies (rarities), we have to discover patterns C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Problem #1 - network and graph mining**• What does the Internet look like? • What does FaceBook look like? • What is ‘normal’/‘abnormal’? • which patterns/laws hold? • To spot anomalies (rarities), we have to discover patterns • Large datasets reveal patterns/anomalies that may be invisible otherwise… C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Graph mining**• Are real graphs random? C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Laws and patterns**• Are real graphs random? • A: NO!! • Diameter • in- and out- degree distributions • other (surprising) patterns • So, let’s look at the data C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Solution# S.1**• Power law in the degree distribution [SIGCOMM99] internet domains att.com log(degree) ibm.com log(rank) C. Faloutsos (CMU)**-0.82**Solution# S.1 • Power law in the degree distribution [SIGCOMM99] internet domains att.com log(degree) ibm.com log(rank) C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Solution# S.2: Eigen Exponent E**• A2: power law in the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix Eigenvalue Exponent = slope E = -0.48 May 2001 Rank of decreasing eigenvalue C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Solution# S.2: Eigen Exponent E**• [Mihail, Papadimitriou ’02]: slope is ½ of rank exponent Eigenvalue Exponent = slope E = -0.48 May 2001 Rank of decreasing eigenvalue C. Faloutsos (CMU)**But:**How about graphs from other domains? C. Faloutsos (CMU)**users**sites More power laws: • web hit counts [w/ A. Montgomery] Web Site Traffic Count (log scale) Zipf ``ebay’’ in-degree (log scale) C. Faloutsos (CMU)**epinions.com**• who-trusts-whom [Richardson + Domingos, KDD 2001] count trusts-2000-people user (out) degree C. Faloutsos (CMU)**And numerous more**• # of sexual contacts • Income [Pareto] –’80-20 distribution’ • Duration of downloads [Bestavros+] • Duration of UNIX jobs (‘mice and elephants’) • Size of files of a user • … • ‘Black swans’ C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Roadmap**• Introduction – Motivation • Problem#1: Patterns in graphs • Static graphs • degree, diameter, eigen, • triangles • cliques • Weighted graphs • Time evolving graphs • Problem#2: Tools C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Solution# S.3: Triangle ‘Laws’**Real social networks have a lot of triangles C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Solution# S.3: Triangle ‘Laws’**Real social networks have a lot of triangles Friends of friends are friends Any patterns? C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Triangle Law: #S.3 [Tsourakakis ICDM 2008]**HEP-TH ASN Epinions X-axis: # of participating triangles Y: count (~ pdf) C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Triangle Law: #S.3 [Tsourakakis ICDM 2008]**HEP-TH ASN Epinions X-axis: # of participating triangles Y: count (~ pdf) C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Triangle Law: #S.4 [Tsourakakis ICDM 2008]**Reuters SN X-axis: degree Y-axis: mean # triangles n friends -> ~n1.6 triangles Epinions C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Triangle Law: Computations [Tsourakakis ICDM 2008]**details But: triangles are expensive to compute (3-way join; several approx. algos) Q: Can we do that quickly? C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Triangle Law: Computations [Tsourakakis ICDM 2008]**details But: triangles are expensive to compute (3-way join; several approx. algos) Q: Can we do that quickly? A: Yes! #triangles = 1/6 Sum ( li3 ) (and, because of skewness (S2) , we only need the top few eigenvalues! C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Triangle Law: Computations [Tsourakakis ICDM 2008]**details 1000x+ speed-up, >90% accuracy C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Triangle counting for large graphs?**Anomalous nodes in Twitter(~ 3 billion edges) [U Kang, Brendan Meeder, +, PAKDD’11] C. Faloutsos (CMU) 31**Triangle counting for large graphs?**Anomalous nodes in Twitter(~ 3 billion edges) [U Kang, Brendan Meeder, +, PAKDD’11] C. Faloutsos (CMU) 32**Triangle counting for large graphs?**Anomalous nodes in Twitter(~ 3 billion edges) [U Kang, Brendan Meeder, +, PAKDD’11] C. Faloutsos (CMU) 33**Triangle counting for large graphs?**Anomalous nodes in Twitter(~ 3 billion edges) [U Kang, Brendan Meeder, +, PAKDD’11] C. Faloutsos (CMU) 34**EigenSpokes**B. Aditya Prakash, Mukund Seshadri, Ashwin Sridharan, Sridhar Machiraju and Christos Faloutsos: EigenSpokes: Surprising Patterns and Scalable Community Chipping in Large Graphs, PAKDD 2010, Hyderabad, India, 21-24 June 2010. C. Faloutsos (CMU)**EigenSpokes**• Eigenvectors of adjacency matrix • equivalent to singular vectors (symmetric, undirected graph) C. Faloutsos (CMU)**EigenSpokes**details • Eigenvectors of adjacency matrix • equivalent to singular vectors (symmetric, undirected graph) N N C. Faloutsos (CMU)**EigenSpokes**details • Eigenvectors of adjacency matrix • equivalent to singular vectors (symmetric, undirected graph) N N C. Faloutsos (CMU)**EigenSpokes**details • Eigenvectors of adjacency matrix • equivalent to singular vectors (symmetric, undirected graph) N N C. Faloutsos (CMU)**EigenSpokes**details • Eigenvectors of adjacency matrix • equivalent to singular vectors (symmetric, undirected graph) N N C. Faloutsos (CMU)**EigenSpokes**2nd Principal component • EE plot: • Scatter plot of scores of u1 vs u2 • One would expect • Many points @ origin • A few scattered ~randomly u2 u1 1st Principal component C. Faloutsos (CMU)**EigenSpokes**• EE plot: • Scatter plot of scores of u1 vs u2 • One would expect • Many points @ origin • A few scattered ~randomly u2 90o u1 C. Faloutsos (CMU)**EigenSpokes - pervasiveness**• Present in mobile social graph • across time and space • Patent citation graph C. Faloutsos (CMU)**EigenSpokes - explanation**Near-cliques, or near-bipartite-cores, loosely connected C. Faloutsos (CMU)**EigenSpokes - explanation**Near-cliques, or near-bipartite-cores, loosely connected C. Faloutsos (CMU)**EigenSpokes - explanation**Near-cliques, or near-bipartite-cores, loosely connected C. Faloutsos (CMU)**EigenSpokes - explanation**Near-cliques, or near-bipartite-cores, loosely connected So what? • Extract nodes with high scores • high connectivity • Good “communities” spy plot of top 20 nodes C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Bipartite Communities!**patents from same inventor(s) `cut-and-paste’ bibliography! magnified bipartite community C. Faloutsos (CMU)**(maybe, botnets?)**Victim IPs? Botnet members? C. Faloutsos (CMU)**Roadmap**• Introduction – Motivation • Problem#1: Patterns in graphs • Static graphs • Weighted graphs • Time evolving graphs • Problem#2: Tools • … C. Faloutsos (CMU)

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