ap european history ms tully n.
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AP European History Ms. Tully. Constitutionalism in 17 th Century Europe. Limitation of government by law – balance between authority and power of gov’t & rights and liberties of the subjects Binding force for gov’t actions Political authority rests in hands of electorate

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constitutionalism

Limitation of government by law – balance between authority and power of gov’t & rights and liberties of the subjects

  • Binding force for gov’t actions
  • Political authority rests in hands of electorate
  • Not a democratic gov’t
Constitutionalism
the dutch republic
The Dutch Republic
  • Independence from Spanish rule in 16thC – Republic of United Provinces of the Netherlands
    • Confirmed by Treaty of Westphalia, 1648
  • “Golden Age of Netherlands” – cultural and economic achievement
  • Influential in shaping new worldview
government structure

Provinces governed autonomously by oligarchy of “regents” – wealthy merchants

    • Resisted centralization
  • States General – federal assembly that handled foreign affairs (war)
  • Stadholder – Representative of States General in each province
    • Highest executive in province – resp. for maintaining order
  • Holland dominated States General and republic
    • Wealthy, large navy
  • Controlled by wealthy merchants & financiers – middle class values
  • Political success result of economic prosperity & religious toleration
Government Structure
commercial success

Largest merchant marine in Europe

    • Fluyt – large capacity ship
    • 16,000 merchant ships in 1650
  • Amsterdam became commercial & financial center of Europe
    • Bank of Amsterdam
    • Stock Exchange
  • Purchase of raw materials, transformation to manufactured goods
  • Dutch East India Company & Dutch West India Company
    • Dominant trading companies of Europe
Commercial Success
dutch culture
Dutch Culture
  • Commercial success brought wealth to all levels of society
  • Higher wages, better diet, higher standard of living
  • Calvinist – work ethic, cleanliness, order
  • Flourishing of literary and artistic culture
english absolutism james i
English Absolutism – James I
  • Elizabeth I succeeded by James I (James VI of Scotland), r. 1603-1625
  • James claimed divine right of monarchy – alienated Parliament
  • Conflict with House of Commons – controlled state purse strings
house of commons in 17thc

Made up of gentry – enriched landowners

  • Capitalist – growing upper middle class
  • Better educated, more articulate
    • Justices & sheriffs
  • Wanted measure of sovereignty
  • Mostly Puritan
House of Commons in 17thC
charles i
Charles I
  • Religious conflict with Parliament
    • Henrietta Maria – Cathoilc wife
    • William Laud – Archbishop of Canterbury
  • Political conflict with Parliament
    • Petition of Right, 1628 – prohibited taxation w/o Parliament’s consent
    • Put limitation on royal power – frustrated Charles
slide10

1629 – Charles dissolves Parliament

    • No Parliament from 1629-1640
    • Financed gov’t through new taxations – “ship money”
  • Scottish uprising
    • Resistance to Laud’s reforms in Scotland
    • Charles forced to call Parliament to finance army
  • Parliamentary Reaction
    • Did not trust Charles with army
    • Passed legislation to limit monarchical power
    • Triennial Act – Parliament required to meet at least once every 3 years
    • Impeached Laud
  • Charles attempted to have radical members of Parliament arrested
    • Aggravated conflict
civil war in england 1642 1649

Charles fled to north to recruit army

  • Parliament developed New Model Army
    • Led by Oliver Cromwell
    • Puritan army
  • New Model Army defeated Charles in 1647 at Battles of Naseby and Langport
  • Cromwell dismissed dissenters in Parliament, creating “Rump Parliament” of 53 men
  • Charles accused of treason – beheaded in 1649
Civil War in England (1642-1649)
puritanical absolutism cromwell and the protectorate

Monarchy and House of Lords abolished – Commonwealth established (1649-1653)

  • Rebellion and dissention
    • Irish rebellion – brutally crushed by Cromwell
    • Levellers – advocated for social reform in England – crushed by Cromwell
  • Cromwell dissolved “Rump Parliament” in 1653 – created Protectorate (military dictatorship)
    • Lord Protector – sole executive power
    • England divided into military districts – governed by major general
  • Navigation Act (1651)
    • Development of English merchant marine
    • Competition with Dutch
  • Cromwell died in 1658, and so did the Protectorate
Puritanical Absolutism: Cromwell and the Protectorate
restoration of english monarchy

Charles II invited back to England as king (r. 1660-1685)

  • Parliament retained much of its power
  • Religious divisions continued to be a problem
  • Test Act of 1673
    • Prevented Catholics from holding office
  • Secret arrangement between Charles II and Louis XIV
    • Louis XIV funded Charles II
    • Charles II would support Catholics in England
Restoration of English Monarchy
slide14

Anti-Catholic hysteria in England

  • James II became king in 1685
    • Catholic brother of Charles
    • Violated Test Act – appointed Catholics to gov’t and military offices
    • Absolutist tendencies
  • Birth of James’ son in 1688 ensured a Catholic dynasty
  • James II & family flee England for France
the glorious revolution

Mary (James II Protestant daughter) & her husband, William of Orange (Netherlands) were invited to rule England

  • “Glorious Revolution” b/c of minimal bloodshed
  • William & Mary recognized supremacy of Parliament
    • King ruled with consent of the governed
  • English Bill of Rights became cornerstone of English constitution
    • Direct response to Stuart absolutism
The Glorious Revolution