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Vocational Education in Schools D I R E C T O R A T E. stay safe @ work. For students in NSW government schools and TAFE NSW institutes. August 2004. Legislation. Rights and Responsibilities. OH&S. A safe workplace. Risk Management. Occupational Health and Safety.

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stay safe @ work

Vocational Education in Schools


stay safe @ work

For students in NSW government schools and TAFE NSW institutes

August 2004

occupational health and safety


Rights and Responsibilities


A safe workplace

Risk Management

Occupational Health and Safety
oh s trends in nsw
OH&S trends in NSW
  • The incidence rate of employment injuries has dropped from 28.6 per 1000 workers in 1994/95 to 20.3 in 2000/01.
  • Since 1994/95 permanent disability cases have declined.
  • A total of 1,713 fatalities were reported during the ten year period 1991/92 to 2000/01.
oh s australian statistics
OH&S Australian statistics
  • In 2000/2001
    • $30 billion was spent on payments to workers due to workplace injuries
    • 200 workplace fatalities occurred
    • 14,000 work related injuries were reported
which group of workers are greatest at risk
Which group of workers are greatest at risk?
  • Young workers under the age of 25
  • New workers including those:
    • entering the workforce for the

first time

    • re-entering the workplace
    • employed for less than 12 months
    • transferring to a new job
  • Male employees
  • Lack of experience
  • Eagerness to please
  • Lack of training in OH&S
  • Lack of supervision
youth statistics in nsw
Youth statistics in NSW
  • In 2000/2001
    • 13 workers under the age of 25 were killed in the workplace.
    • all of these workers were male.
    • this represented 9% of all fatalities.
    • of these, seven were killed by vehicle accident
  • Approx 4,500 workers under the age of 25 were injured.
  • Some of these injuries were minor, allowing rapid return to work. Others were major and more incapacitating. Some of the young people will never be able to go to work again!

(Statistical Bulletin 2000/2001, WorkCover NSW)

top 5 critical injuries to young workers
Top 5 critical injuries to young workers
  • Broken bones
  • Severe loss of blood
  • Head injuries
  • Amputation
  • Severe burns or scalds

WorkCover, NSW

top 5 causes of injury to young workers
Top 5 causes of injury to young workers
  • Manual handling
  • Slips, trips and falls
  • Being hit by moving objects
  • Falls from a height
  • Hitting moving objects

WorkCover NSW

consequences of workplace injuries
Consequences of workplace injuries
  • Financial costs
  • Human costs
  • Social costs
workplace injuries in nsw
Workplace injuries in NSW
  • In 2000/2001:
    • The total number of employment injuries was 53,797.
    • There were 139 workplace fatalities.
    • The gross incurred cost of employment injuries was $1,138 million.
    • Time lost for temporary disability cases was 398,838 weeks.
    • The most common workplace injuries were sprains and strains (64%) accounting for a cost of $565 million.
    • Back injuries accounted for over 30% of workplace injuries and cost $270 million.

(Statistical Bulletin 2000/2001, WorkCover NSW)

what is a hazard
What is a hazard?
  • Anything or any action that can lead to someone developing an illness or being injured
  • Hazards can arise from
    • the work environment
    • the use of machinery and substances
    • poor work design
    • inappropriate systems and procedures
types of hazards
Types of hazards
  • Types of hazards:
    • physical eg. noise, radiation, light, vibration
    • chemical eg. poisons, dusts
    • biological eg. viruses, plants, parasites
    • mechanical/electrical eg. slips, trips and falls, tools, electrical equipment
    • psychological eg. fatigue, violence, bullying.
common workplace hazards
Common workplace hazards
  • Manual handling e.g pushing, pulling, carrying, lifting
  • Work environment e.g. floor surfaces, noise, temperature
  • Machinery
  • Heat e.g. burns and scalds
  • Electricity e.g electrocution
common workplace hazards 2
Common workplace hazards…2
  • Harassment e.g. bullying and/or violence
  • Hazardous substances e.g. chemicals, fumes
  • Biological waste
  • Noise
  • Confined space
  • Skin penetrating injuries e.g. knife or syringe injuries
identifying hazards
Identifying hazards
  • Workplace inspections
  • Consultation
  • Monitoring injury and illness records
  • Recording complaints
  • Observation
dealing with hazards
Dealing with hazards
  • Eliminate the hazard
  • Change the equipment or materials
  • Change work methods
  • Use personal protection equipment (PPE)
risk management
Risk management
  • Identify the hazard
  • Assess the risk
  • Eliminate or control the risk
  • Monitor and improve the workplace
1 identify the hazard
1. Identify the hazard
  • Know what the dangers are in the workplace.
  • Keep records of accidents and injuries
  • Conductsafety inspections of the workplace
  • List all plantand hazardous substances.
2 assess the risk
2. Assess the risk
  • Determine what the risk is that someone may be injured.
  • Assess how likely it is that a hazardous event will occur and what the consequences are likely to be.
3 control the risk
3. Control the risk
  • Implement measures to prevent injury or illness.
    • eliminate the risk if possible
    • minimise the riskusing substitution, modifications, isolation or engineering controls
    • personal protective equipment (PPE) should only be used as a last resort.
4 monitor and improve the workplace
4. Monitor and improve the workplace
  • Control measures should be reviewed to maintain their effectiveness and further refine the process.
hierarchy of control
Hierarchy of control
  • If elimination is not possible then:
    • substitute
    • isolate
    • minimise risk using engineering controls
    • minimise risk using administrative controls
    • PPE

The Legal Framework


Act 2000

An Act of Parliament

OH&S Regulation 2001

Regulations give details on how certain sections of the Act are to be implemented. The Regulation calls on various Australian Standards and other standards and codes of practice to establish guidelines for particular OHS issues. Everything in the Regulation is law and must be followed.

Codes of Practice

Codes of practice give practical guidance on how the required standard of health, safety and welfare can be achieved in an area of work. They are approved under the OH&S Act by the Minister for Commerce.

Sometimes Codes of Practice are ‘called up’ in Regulations and in these circumstances have the same legal force as the Regulation itself. Otherwise, Codes of Practice should be followed, unless there is an alternative course of action which achieves the same or better standard of health in the workplace.

They can be used in support of the enforcement provisions of the OH&S Act or as evidence to support a prosecution for failing to comply with or contravening the OH&S Act or OH&S Regulation.

the legal framework
The Legal Framework
  • The new revised Occupational Health and Safety Act 2000 came into effect September 2001
  • The Occupational Health and Safety Regulation 2001 replaces:
    • all existing OH&S regulations
    • the Construction Safety Act 1912 and regulations
    • Part 3 of the Factories, Shops and Industries Act 1962
the ohs regulation 2001
The OHS Regulation 2001
  • Areas covered by the new regulation are:
    • Identification of all workplace hazards
    • Implementation of measures to control risks
    • Provision of training, instruction and supervision
    • Workplace consultation between employers and employees
    • Control of high risk hazards including plant, hazardous substances and hazardous processes
    • Certification of operators of equipment
    • Licensing of businesses
    • Notification notices to WorkCover NSW
workers compensation
Workers Compensation
  • Under the Workers Compensation Acts
    • workers are entitled to compensation for injuries sustained in the course of employment
    • compensation is extended to any injuries occurring while travelling to and from work and during lunch breaks
    • work related diseases contracted by an employee is covered by compensation
    • the employee must prove the injury arose during the course of employment
workers compensation 2
Workers Compensation…2
  • compensation is paid to family members in the case of death
  • compensation will not be granted if the worker is involved in wilful misconduct unless death, serious injury or permanent disability occurs
  • employees must make all effort to return to work and the employer must provide suitable employment for injured workers
responsibilities of the employer
Responsibilities of the Employer
  • Provide a safe working environment
  • Provide a safe system of work
  • Provide proper training and information
  • Identify hazards, assess the risks and

eliminate or control the risks

  • Provide supervision
  • Supply personal protective equipment and clothing
  • Consult with employees
responsibilities of the employer 2
Responsibilities of the Employer..2
  • Provide amenities
  • Provide first aid facilities and personnel
  • Provide for emergencies
  • Ensure OH&S committee members and representatives are trained
  • No victimisation or unlawfully dismiss of an employee is allowed
  • No charge to employees for things done
responsibilities of the employee
Responsibilities of the Employee
  • Take reasonable care for the health and safety of people who are at the place of work
  • Co-operate with the employer or other person
  • Notify the employer or supervisor of any risk to health and safety
  • Not to interfere with or misuse things provided for health, safety and welfare
  • Not hinder aid to an injured worker
  • Not to refuse assistance in either receiving aid or giving aid
  • Not to disrupt the workplace by creating health or safety fears
occupational health and safety committees and representatives
Occupational Health and Safety Committees and Representatives
  • Continual review of measures to ensure health and safety
  • Investigate any matter that poses a risk
  • Attempt to resolve a heath and safety issue
  • Request an investigation by a WorkCover inspector
  • Consult with a WorkCover inspector and accompany them on an inspection
responsibility of a workcover inspector
Responsibility of a WorkCover Inspector
  • To investigate any suspected breach of the Occupational Health and Safety Legislation in a place of work
tips for young workers
Tips for young workers
  • Take responsibility for your own safety
  • Know what to look for when entering a new or different workplace
  • Know what questions to ask about the job
  • Report any health and safety concerns
  • Follow all safety procedures
ask your supervisor
Ask your supervisor….
  • What are the dangers of my job?
  • What are the hazards?
  • Should I have any job safety training?
  • Do I need any personal protective equipment?
  • Should I be trained in how to use my PPE?
  • Where are the first aid facilities?
  • Who is the first aid person?
ask your supervisor37
Ask your supervisor….
  • What do I do if I get injured?
  • Where are the fire extinguishers?
  • Where are the emergency exits?
  • How will I know if there is an emergency?
  • What should I do in an emergency?
  • Who do go to in the workplace if I have a health or safety question?
interactive web sites of interest
Interactive web sites of interest
  • Safety Zone, WorkCover NSW Government
  • Interactive Café, Workplace Health and Safety Queensland Government

  • Living Safely with Electricity, Workplace Health and Safety Queensland Government

  • Hunt for Hazards, Workcover Corporation South Australian Government