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Information Architecture as a Decision-Support Tool. Dr. M. A. Malloy mmalloy@mitre.org 17 November 2009. Disclaimers. All information presented here is UNCLASSIFIED , technically accurate, contains no critical military technology and is not subject to export controls.

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information architecture as a decision support tool

Information Architecture as a Decision-Support Tool

Dr. M. A. Malloy

mmalloy@mitre.org

17 November 2009

disclaimers
Disclaimers

All information presented here is UNCLASSIFIED, technically accurate, contains no critical military technology and is not subject to export controls.

The views, opinions, and conclusions expressed here are those of the presenter and should not be construed as an official position of MITRE or the United States Department of Defense (DoD).

overview
Overview
  • What’s a decision-support tool?
  • What’s an information architecture framework (IAF)?
  • How can information architectures support the decision-maker?
    • Examples
  • Take-aways
decision support tool purposes
Decision-Support Tool purposes **

INTUIT

EXPLORE / VISUALIZE

ANALYZE / REPORT

To check that “everything is OK”

To confirm the “obvious”

To compare “actual performance” against formal or informal goals or constraints

To identify what is “out-of-the-ordinary”

To find a small, significant piece of information

To figure out how something “works”

To “work around” normal channels

To do side-by-side comparisons of like items, quantities, etc.

To compare the same type of information for discovering trends and relationships [e.g., in different time periods]

To convey information in a more digestible manner

To support “what-if” analysis or forecasting

To create a “report of record”

To help advocate a position

** http://www.umsl.edu/~subramaniana/DSS_tools.html

we manage information because
We manage information because…

CLAIM: Information architecture enables decision-makers to answer the question:

Are we managing the right, high-quality, actionable, timely information we need to make our key decisions?

We can

Someone tells us we have to

It’s a valuable corporate asset

It supports decision-making

All of the above

what is enterprise architecture ea
What is enterprise architecture (EA)?
  • “enterprise”
    • any organization or group of organizations that has a common set of goals or principles or a single bottom line
  • “architecture”
    • the structure of components, their relationships to each other and to the environment, and the principles guiding the design and evolution of the entity they describe,** whether that entity is an organization, a system, or a functional or mission area

** DoD Architecture Framework Version 1.5, Volume I: Definitions and Guidelines, 23 April 2007

relevance of information in ea
Relevance of “information” in EA
  • Derived from various business needs
  • Influenced by / influences governance, activities, technology, services
  • Must be managed throughout its lifecycle

OrganizationalDirectives

Business Needs

Governance

BusinessView

Business Activities

InformationView

Information

Service

View

Services

Technology

View

Technology

what should the information view include
What should the information view include?
  • Activities/processes that produce and consume information
  • Structure of and relationships among the information
    • Conceptual & logical data models of the enterprise (i.e., information requirements)
    • Ontologies, taxonomies, vocabularies; metadata, schemas
    • Authoritative data sources; access control rules
  • Information infrastructure (IT)
    • Data storage; data transport; data services
    • Information assurance
    • Standards and standard products
  • Implementation strategy and guidance
    • Information management policy & Guidance
    • Ways and means for creating the above descriptions
      • Governance, roles & responsibilities, data engineering, configuration management, verification & validation (V&V), authoritative data sources

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framework helps organize relate information architecture products
“Framework” helps organize & relate information architecture products

Stakeholders

The Enterprise

Info Architecture Framework

architecture

product

high level view of the information architecture framework iaf

Information Asset Relationships

Services

Business

Technology

Information Asset Principles

Information Asset Policy

Information Asset Governance

High-level view of the Information Architecture Framework (IAF)

Drivers

and

Input

Uses

and

Impacts

Establish

Information Architecture Components

Information Asset Description

Information Asset Context

Information Asset Sharing

Information asset

a resource having value that is both owned and managed

inter view relationships
Inter-view relationships
  • Information – Business
    • How do information assets relate to business activities? e.g,
      • Asset to process cross reference
  • Information – Service
    • How do information assets relate to service offerings? e.g.,
      • Asset to service cross reference.
      • Service-level Agreement (SLA) Template
  • Information – Technology
    • How do information asset considerations impact technical realization? e.g.,
      • Definition of a mediation view between physical store and services
      • Security characteristics selection criteria
example are we managing the right assets

Information Asset Relationships

Services

Business

Technology

Information Asset Principles

Information Asset Policy

Information Asset Governance

Example: Are we managing the right assets?

GCIC/RI

GAPs,

CBA

iSMART

Business Rules

MIL-STDs

Drivers

and

Input

JCIDS

Uses

and

Impacts

Establish

Information Architecture Components

Information Asset Description

Information Asset Context

Information Asset Sharing

VocabularyToolset

Caps & LimsToolset

ICD

JMSWG

MTFWG

COI

JALN,

Platforms

NCDS

NCES

answering other questions
Answering other questions

Database & Application Framework

Database & Application Framework

Query

Query

SPARQL

SPARQL

Gruff

Gruff

Browser

Browser

Triple Stores

Triple Stores

Ontology

Ontology

Lisp

Lisp

JAVA

JAVA

Top Braid ComposerTM

Top Braid ComposerTM

RDF/XML

RDF/XML

AllegroGraph

AllegroGraph

This approach is currently being explored

via use cases.

  • (Semi-) automate population of triple store from existing metadata sources
    • Use IAF as the basis for defining mappings
  • Use built-in visualization, query, analytical tools to realize added value
  • Earmark categories of architecture products needed to answer specific types of questions
summary
Summary
  • An architecture framework approach supports
    • Distributed, incremental development by multiple stakeholders
    • Recognizing “patterns” across similar organizations
  • A database application framework approach
    • Supports discovery of unanticipated answers and value
  • IAF supports managing information assets from an enterprise perspective
    • Are we managing the right information to answer key questions?

15