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The British Commonwealth

The British Commonwealth

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The British Commonwealth

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  1. The British Commonwealth Wealth of a Nation

  2. Why could Britain gain colonies # 1 Belief in mercantilism – the wealth and power of a nation depends upon how much gold it posses. ( this came from Aztecs and Incas)

  3. For nations that did not control gold mines a. they avoid spending gold for raw materials b. established a market for the finished goods produced at home This led to abusing colonies

  4. This led to abusing colonies • Strict laws forbidding American colonies to trade with any country except Great Britain • American colonies could not produce anything that was produced in Great Britain • The American Revolution was a protest against mercantilism • Adam Smith urged Britain to abandon mercantilism for free trade

  5. Why could Britain gain colonies • # 2 Geography 1. Britain was kept safe from invaders and their Navy had been built since Alfred 2. The British Isles were a strategic position in trade routes between East and west.

  6. Why could Britain gain colonies • # 3 Industrial Revolution • # 4 Organizational Philosophy • Home office controls from England • Governor later replaced by viceroy • The East India Co. was replaced by the English army to control colonies • Whiteman's burden (Rudyard Kippling) duty of the white man to westernize 3rd world nations

  7. Take up the White Man's burden--The savage wars of peace--Fill full the mouth of FamineAnd bid the sickness cease;And when your goal is nearestThe end for others sought,Watch sloth and heathen FollyBring all your hopes to nought.Take up the White Man's burden--No tawdry rule of kings,But toil of serf and sweeper--The tale of common things.The ports ye shall not enter,The roads ye shall not tread,Go mark them with your living,And mark them with your dead. • Take up the White Man's burden--Send forth the best ye breed--Go bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives' need;To wait in heavy harness,On fluttered folk and wild--Your new-caught, sullen peoples,Half-devil and half-child.Take up the White Man's burden--In patience to abide,To veil the threat of terrorAnd check the show of pride;By open speech and simple,An hundred times made plainTo seek another's profit,And work another's gain.

  8. White Man's burden • Take up the White Man's burden--Have done with childish days--The lightly proferred laurel,The easy, ungrudged praise.Comes now, to search your manhoodThrough all the thankless yearsCold, edged with dear-bought wisdom,The judgment of your peers • Take up the White Man's burden--And reap his old reward:The blame of those ye better,The hate of those ye guard--The cry of hosts ye humour(Ah, slowly!) toward the light:--"Why brought he us from bondage,Our loved Egyptian night?"Take up the White Man's burden--Ye dare not stoop to less--Nor call too loud on FreedomTo cloke your weariness;By all ye cry or whisper,By all ye leave or do,The silent, sullen peoplesShall weigh your gods and you.

  9. 2 British Empires • 1st 1600-1783 (American Revolution) • 2nd (1783 –1914 WW1) The British change their policy after they lose American Revolution –still influenced ¼ of all nations by 1914

  10. Ireland • Darkest spot in the Empire • England feared it may be used by their enemies

  11. Ireland • England forced the Irish Catholics to give support of Protestant church ( Penal laws) Northern Ireland ends up Protestant –mostly Scottish weavers Southern Ireland ends up Catholic mostly farmers

  12. Ireland • Oliver Cromwell gave away much Irish land • By 1820 Daniel O'Connell tries to free Catholics from Protestants • There were many attempts to break away from England including the 1916 Easter Rebellion. Most were defeated

  13. Ireland Notice strange growths on potato famine • Many Irish come to America in 1848 following a Potato famine • Ireland left the British Commonwealth in 1949, but Ireland struggled through the late 20th century over religion.

  14. Canada • French dominate Canada in the 15th and 16th century –called it New France • Britain wins Canada in 1763 from French and Indian War British promised the French they could keep their own customs- thus Quebec today is still French • Canada became a dominion after 1938

  15. Australia • 170 James Cook claimed the South East coast and it served as criminal colony for debtors • Shepherding was the major industry until gold was discovered in 1851 –larger find than the one in the US and the rush there was larger too

  16. Australia • The interior is not settled –rough terrain • Grew into 5 colonies and a commonwealth • Can you name them ?

  17. Australia • New South Wales • Queens land • South Australia • Northern Territory • Western Australia

  18. New Zealand • Cook claimed this for England • Several wars with the Maori tribes to conquer the island • Found by Abel Tasman 1700’s • 1893 First to give woman voting rights • A dominion also

  19. South Africa • The Dutch (Boers) 1795 1st republic –conquered by British • Boers is Dutch for farmers • And do not mix well with British • The Dutch were forced to move land on the Great Trek in 1835 and end up with several wars against African natives including Zulus

  20. South Africa • The Dutch established two independent • Boer republics • 1. Transvaal- gold found • 2. Orange Free State – found diamonds • Hundreds of British prospectors pour into the republic • The Boers could not move again

  21. South Africa • 1899-1902 Boer War The British Win Cecil Rhodes became a multi millionaire from the diamond industry and had became the Head of the English Cape Colony before the Boer War Today the Rhodes scholarship is named for him

  22. South Africa • In 1910 The British merged Transvaal Orange (Dutch) with 2 British colonies Cape Colony and Natal and this all became • South Africa

  23. South Africa • The Dutch Boer farmers eventually picked up the language of Africans and it fused together thus many Dutch Boers became Afrikaners • AFRIKANERS took control of South Africa and instituted a policy of apartheid

  24. Afrikaners • The policy of Apartheid grew in big cities like Johannesburg and outside of the cities non white townships like Soweto became separate areas.

  25. India, the American Colonies and China • These areas have been covered earlier and are an integral part of the British Commonwealth. The End