The British Commonwealth Wealth of a Nation
Why could Britain gain colonies # 1 Belief in mercantilism – the wealth and power of a nation depends upon how much gold it posses. ( this came from Aztecs and Incas)
For nations that did not control gold mines a. they avoid spending gold for raw materials b. established a market for the finished goods produced at home This led to abusing colonies
This led to abusing colonies • Strict laws forbidding American colonies to trade with any country except Great Britain • American colonies could not produce anything that was produced in Great Britain • The American Revolution was a protest against mercantilism • Adam Smith urged Britain to abandon mercantilism for free trade
Why could Britain gain colonies • # 2 Geography 1. Britain was kept safe from invaders and their Navy had been built since Alfred 2. The British Isles were a strategic position in trade routes between East and west.
Why could Britain gain colonies • # 3 Industrial Revolution • # 4 Organizational Philosophy • Home office controls from England • Governor later replaced by viceroy • The East India Co. was replaced by the English army to control colonies • Whiteman's burden (Rudyard Kippling) duty of the white man to westernize 3rd world nations
Take up the White Man's burden--The savage wars of peace--Fill full the mouth of FamineAnd bid the sickness cease;And when your goal is nearestThe end for others sought,Watch sloth and heathen FollyBring all your hopes to nought.Take up the White Man's burden--No tawdry rule of kings,But toil of serf and sweeper--The tale of common things.The ports ye shall not enter,The roads ye shall not tread,Go mark them with your living,And mark them with your dead. • Take up the White Man's burden--Send forth the best ye breed--Go bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives' need;To wait in heavy harness,On fluttered folk and wild--Your new-caught, sullen peoples,Half-devil and half-child.Take up the White Man's burden--In patience to abide,To veil the threat of terrorAnd check the show of pride;By open speech and simple,An hundred times made plainTo seek another's profit,And work another's gain.
White Man's burden • Take up the White Man's burden--Have done with childish days--The lightly proferred laurel,The easy, ungrudged praise.Comes now, to search your manhoodThrough all the thankless yearsCold, edged with dear-bought wisdom,The judgment of your peers • Take up the White Man's burden--And reap his old reward:The blame of those ye better,The hate of those ye guard--The cry of hosts ye humour(Ah, slowly!) toward the light:--"Why brought he us from bondage,Our loved Egyptian night?"Take up the White Man's burden--Ye dare not stoop to less--Nor call too loud on FreedomTo cloke your weariness;By all ye cry or whisper,By all ye leave or do,The silent, sullen peoplesShall weigh your gods and you.
2 British Empires • 1st 1600-1783 (American Revolution) • 2nd (1783 –1914 WW1) The British change their policy after they lose American Revolution –still influenced ¼ of all nations by 1914
Ireland • Darkest spot in the Empire • England feared it may be used by their enemies
Ireland • England forced the Irish Catholics to give support of Protestant church ( Penal laws) Northern Ireland ends up Protestant –mostly Scottish weavers Southern Ireland ends up Catholic mostly farmers
Ireland • Oliver Cromwell gave away much Irish land • By 1820 Daniel O'Connell tries to free Catholics from Protestants • There were many attempts to break away from England including the 1916 Easter Rebellion. Most were defeated
Ireland Notice strange growths on potato famine • Many Irish come to America in 1848 following a Potato famine • Ireland left the British Commonwealth in 1949, but Ireland struggled through the late 20th century over religion.
Canada • French dominate Canada in the 15th and 16th century –called it New France • Britain wins Canada in 1763 from French and Indian War British promised the French they could keep their own customs- thus Quebec today is still French • Canada became a dominion after 1938
Australia • 170 James Cook claimed the South East coast and it served as criminal colony for debtors • Shepherding was the major industry until gold was discovered in 1851 –larger find than the one in the US and the rush there was larger too
Australia • The interior is not settled –rough terrain • Grew into 5 colonies and a commonwealth • Can you name them ?
Australia • New South Wales • Queens land • South Australia • Northern Territory • Western Australia
New Zealand • Cook claimed this for England • Several wars with the Maori tribes to conquer the island • Found by Abel Tasman 1700’s • 1893 First to give woman voting rights • A dominion also
South Africa • The Dutch (Boers) 1795 1st republic –conquered by British • Boers is Dutch for farmers • And do not mix well with British • The Dutch were forced to move land on the Great Trek in 1835 and end up with several wars against African natives including Zulus
South Africa • The Dutch established two independent • Boer republics • 1. Transvaal- gold found • 2. Orange Free State – found diamonds • Hundreds of British prospectors pour into the republic • The Boers could not move again
South Africa • 1899-1902 Boer War The British Win Cecil Rhodes became a multi millionaire from the diamond industry and had became the Head of the English Cape Colony before the Boer War Today the Rhodes scholarship is named for him
South Africa • In 1910 The British merged Transvaal Orange (Dutch) with 2 British colonies Cape Colony and Natal and this all became • South Africa
South Africa • The Dutch Boer farmers eventually picked up the language of Africans and it fused together thus many Dutch Boers became Afrikaners • AFRIKANERS took control of South Africa and instituted a policy of apartheid
Afrikaners • The policy of Apartheid grew in big cities like Johannesburg and outside of the cities non white townships like Soweto became separate areas.
India, the American Colonies and China • These areas have been covered earlier and are an integral part of the British Commonwealth. The End