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Chapter 2: Spread of Civilization. Lesson 1: Egypt. The Nile River and geography. What do we know about the Nile River? Runs for 4,000 miles Flows from south to north Empties into the Mediterranean Sea Branches off to create the Nile Delta

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the nile river and geography
The Nile River and geography
  • What do we know about the Nile River?
        • Runs for 4,000 miles
        • Flows from south to north
        • Empties into the Mediterranean Sea
        • Branches off to create the Nile Delta
        • Yearly flooding creates nutrient rich soil like the Fertile Crescent
  • What barriers protect the land of Egypt?
        • North: Mediterranean Sea
        • South: Rapids of the Nile River
        • East: Red Sea and Desert
        • West: Sahara Desert
how are egypt and mesopotamia similar
How are Egypt and Mesopotamia Similar?
  • Similar
    • Presence of Polytheism
        • Multiple gods
    • Nutrient rich soil
        • Like Fertile Crescent
        • Allows for large amount of crops
  • Different
    • Barriers
      • Egypt protected well and kept things unchanged
      • Openness of Mesopotamia allowed for many conquests over the centuries
    • Gods
      • Mesopotamia had many gods in one category
      • Egypt had 2 categories of gods
        • Land gods and Sun gods
the kingdoms of egypt
The kingdoms of Egypt
  • The Old Kingdom (2700-2200 BC)
    • Divine Rule
      • Rule of the pharaohs
      • Extension of the gods
      • Following rule was maintaining stability
    • What government standard did they set up still in use?
      • Bureaucracy
        • Organization
        • Helped assist in running government
        • Gave advice to ruler on certain manners
        • Can be compared to the Cabinet in US
creations of the old kingdom
Creations of the Old kingdom
  • Great Pyramids (2540 BC)
    • At Giza
    • Uses?
      • Tombs of Pharaohs
    • Great Sphinx

Purpose is unknown

  • Mummification
    • Process of wrapping and preserving a body.
    • Organs are removed
      • Placed in jars in the tomb
    • Body covered in salt to remove water
    • Wrapped in spices and covered
the kingdoms of egypt1
The kingdoms of Egypt
  • The Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 BC)
    • Adventures of the Middle Kingdom
      • Conquered the land of Nubia
      • Trading journeys with Crete, Kush, Syria, and Mesopotamia
    • Change in the role of pharaoh
      • No longer divine rule
      • Acts more as a leader instead of a messenger of the gods
      • Responsible for improvements for the people
      • Public works
early life in egypt
Early life in Egypt
  • Social Structure
    • Hierarchy based on wealth/power
      • 1 Pharaoh
      • 2. Nobles
      • 3. Merchants/artisans
      • 4. Peasants/workers
  • Marriage
    • Arranged by the families
    • Uniqueness
      • Women keep property when married
      • Can operate businesses
    • Children
      • Male children wanted
      • Allows for the family name to be carried on
  • Pg. 26 #1-6
  • Due Tuesday
the phoenicians
The Phoenicians
  • Major City: Carthage
  • Lived on the coast
  • Used water for travel
  • Major developments
      • Glass
      • Lumber
      • Purple Dye
      • 22 letter alphabet (transformed into alphabet for Greeks and Romans)
  • Trade routes (pg. 28)
      • Throughout Mediterranean Sea
      • Travelled to Atlantic Ocean up to Great Britain
the israelites
The Israelites
  • Old Testament acts as a written history of Israelites
  • King David (1000-920BC)began the line
    • Followed by Solomon
    • Expanded the army and trade routes
    • Established Jerusalem as the center of religion
    • Assyrians eventually conquered Israelites
      • Tribes of Israel became scattered in the process
  • Conquered by the Chaldeans (Map of Chaldean Empire)
  • Sent to Babylon in a period known as the Exile
  • Judaism
      • Monotheism
        • Belief in one God
        • 1st religion where there is a personal relationship with God
      • 3 aspects to Judaism
        • 1. Covenant with God (God with Moses)
        • 2. Law (10 Commandments)
        • 3. Prophets (Religious teachers)
      • Unwillingness to accept polytheism led to persecution
  • 2800-1450 BC
  • Established on the island of Crete (Map of where Crete is)
  • Named after King Minos of Crete
  • Sea trading empire
  • What did they create?
      • Pottery
      • Gold and Silver Jewelry
  • What happened to the Minoans?
      • 1. Tidal Wave caused by volcano
      • 2. Mycenaeans from Greece came and conquered
  • What is a subcontinent?
    • Large self-contained landmass
    • A subdivision of a continent
  • Barriers
    • North: Himalaya Mountains (Largest in the world)
    • South: Arabian Sea
    • West: Arid Plateau (Now part of Pakistan)
  • The Ganges River supplies Indus Valley with fertile agriculture
  • Monsoons in the summer months cause heavy rainfall leading to flooding and heavy wind storms
    • Farmers depend on the monsoon season for survival
  • 3000-1500 BC
  • Spread out over hundreds of miles
  • Major Cities: Harappa (35K) and MohenjoDaro (35-40K)
    • Planned Communities
    • Major streets all ran north/south
    • Minor streets ran east/west
    • Public wells for drinking water
    • Bathrooms with a drainage system. Sewage Pits laid beyond city limits
    • Trash system with chutes directing waste to specific disposals
    • Well-organized government
    • Based on agriculture
migration the aryans
Migration: The Aryans

Tribal group that moved south into Indus Valley

  • Nomadic groups that began to settle down with agriculture
  • Introduction of iron allowed for better agriculture in places that couldn’t be settled before
  • Grew
          • Barley, Wheat, and Millet in North
          • Cotton, Spices, and Vegetables in South
  • Writing
      • Sanskrit: Indo-European language established around 1000 BC
        • Showed us that India was carved up into small kingdoms run by rajas(princes)
  • Family structure
    • 3 generations of family live in one house. Oldest male ruled the house
  • Marriage and Death
    • Marriages were arranged and required dowries
    • Suttee: The dead were cremated on top of pillars. Women expect to join men by jumping on top of their bodies and burning with them
role of geography
Role of geography
  • Yellow River (Huang He River)
    • Runs 2,900 miles from Mongolia to Pacific Ocean
    • Carries yellow silt full of nutrients
  • Yangtze River (Chang Jiang River)
    • Runs 3,400 miles across central China into the Yellow Sea
  • Only 10% of land in China could sustain farming
  • Deserts and Mountains acted as protection for China
  • However when there was meetings between people, it led to conflicts
  • Climate: Similar to Indus Valley with monsoon seasons
shang dynasty
Shang Dynasty
  • 1750-1045 BC
  • Ruled by an aristocracy. Upper-class based on land wealth
  • A farming society
  • One capital located in Anyang
    • King rules from capital and breaks up territory into 5 regions
    • Military leaders (warlords) rule each territory
    • Death of king
      • Buried in a royal tomb and joined by his loyal servants in death
  • Social Structure
    • 1. King
    • 2. Aristocracy
    • 3. Merchants
    • 4. Peasants
    • 5. Slaves
shang dynasty1
Shang Dynasty
  • Religion
    • Belief in supernatural forces
    • Communication with supernatural through the use of oracle bones
    • Oracle Bones
      • Used by priests
      • Had questions written on them
      • Held the answers to all of the king’s questions
      • Heated rods would crack the bones
      • Cracks would give the answer
    • Death
      • Life after death
      • Need for spirits to have spread good fortune on living family members
zhou dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
  • 1045-256 BC
  • Continued practices of the Shang Dynasty
  • Mandate of Heaven
    • Heaven kept order in the universe through the king
    • King responsible for ruling people with goodness and efficiency
    • Dao: The proper Way of ruling
      • Must please the gods and protect the people or be replaced
      • Set forth the right to a revolution to the people
  • Family
    • Filial Piety: Duty of the children to be subordinate to the head male
    • Every family member has a role. Head male’s desires come first
  • Written language
    • Pictographs and ideographs represent words in language
the olmec and zapotec
The Olmec and Zapotec
  • The Olmec
    • Found in Mexico and Central America in 1200-400 BC
    • Early trade involved jade and obsidian
    • Created large cities centered around religious temples

Monuments to the gods and rulers

    • Culture eventually disappeared
      • Left behind a calendar and number system.
      • Rituals used found in later cultures like the Mayans
  • The Zapotec
    • Found in Central Mexico in 500 BC-800 AD
    • Population of 20,000
    • Ruled by the nobles and priests
    • Written language that is still not understood
  • Largest City in Mesoamerica
  • Also known as the Place of the Gods
  • Population of 200,000
  • Religion found itself all over the land in the form of monuments and temples
    • Ex: Pyramid of the Sun (4 tiers high) standing over 200 feet
  • Mainly a farming city
  • Merchants were well known for obsidian tools which were used in every facet of daily life
3 5 sentences per question
3-5 Sentences per question
  • 1. What achievements were made by the Egyptians in the Old Kingdom?
  • 2. How did the geography of the Indus Valley help the civilization survive?
  • 3. Explain the Mandate of Heaven.
  • 4. Explain how Judaism is unique compared to all other religions of the time.