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travis-benton

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Chapter 8
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  1. Chapter 8 Nutrition:Eating for Optimum Health

  2. Objectives • Examine the factors that influence dietary choices. • Discuss how to change old eating habits, including how to use MyPyramid. • Summarize the major essential nutrients. • Discuss food as a form of medicine and the facts related to new trends in nutrition. • Distinguish among the various forms of vegetarianism. • Discuss issues surrounding gender, exercise, and nutrition. • Discuss how unique situations in your life can influence dietary needs. • Discuss the unique problems college students face when trying to eat healthy foods. • Explain food safety concerns facing Americans and people in other regions of the world.

  3. Assessing Eating Behaviors • Hunger – lack or shortage of basic foods needed to provide the energy and nutrients that supports health • Appetite – a learned desire to eat that may or may not have anything to do with feeling hungry • Nutrition – the science that investigates the relationship between physiological function and the essential elements of the foods we eat

  4. Cultural and social meanings attached to food Convenience Habit or custom Advertising Availability Economy Emotional comfort Weight/body image Social interaction Regional/seasonal trends Nutritional value Environmental conditions Eating Influences

  5. Eating For Health • Nutrient • Calorie • Proteins • Fats • Carbohydrates • Vitamins • Minerals • Water

  6. Estimated Daily Calorie Needs, by Age Table 8.1

  7. Trends in Caloric Intake Figure 8.1a

  8. Trends in Caloric Intake (continued) Figure 8.1b

  9. Obtaining Essential Nutrients • Water • Dehydration • Bathes cells • Aids in fluid and electrolyte balance • Transports molecules and cells • Major component of blood • Proteins • Carbohydrates • Fats

  10. The Digestive Process • Digestive process – the process by which foods are broken down and either absorbed or excreted by the body • Saliva – aids in chewing and swallowing as well as containing enzymes • Esophagus – tube that connects the mouth to the stomach • Stomach – digestive organ that allows food to mix with enzymes and stomach acids • Small intestine – allow nutrients to be absorbed into the blood stream

  11. The Digestive Process Figure 8.2

  12. Proteins • Proteins are broken down into amino acids • 9 of the 20 combinations of amino acids are known as “essential amino acids” • Essential amino acids – must be obtained from diet, the other 11 combinations are produced naturally by the body • Complete protein foods contain the 9 essential amino acids. Typically animal products contain complete protein • Food from plant sources are typically incomplete; however is it possible to use a combination of plant sources to obtain all 9 essential proteins

  13. Complementary Proteins Figure 8.3

  14. Calculating Your Protein RDA Figure 8.4

  15. Carbohydrates • Simple Sugars • Monosaccharides • Disaccharides • Complex Sugars • Polysaccharides • Athletic performance • Carbohydrate loading • Sugar and weight loss

  16. Artificial Sweeteners Table 8.2

  17. Fiber • Fiber – the indigestible portion of plant foods that helps move foods through the digestive system • Insoluble fiber – found in bran, whole-grain breads and cereal, and most fruits and vegetables • Soluble fiber – oat bran, dried beans, and some fruits and vegetables

  18. Fiber Benefits • Protection against colon and rectal cancer • Protection against breast cancer • Protection against constipation • Protection against diverticulosis • Protection against heart disease • Protection against diabetes • Protection against obesity

  19. Fats • Fats (lipids) – vital role in maintaining health skin and hair, insulating body organs against shock, maintaining body temperature, and promoting health cell function • Triglycerides – most common form of fat circulating in the blood (95 percent of body fat). The liver converts excess calories into triglycerides • Cholesterol – the remaining 5 percent of body fat, can accumulate on the inner walls of arteries • Plaque – the build up of cholesterol; major cause of atherosclerosis • HDL • LDL

  20. PUFAs andMUFAs • Fat cells consist of chains of carbon and hydrogen • Saturated – unable to hold any more hydrogen • Unsaturated fat (MUFA) • Polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) • Trans fat (partially hydrogenated)

  21. Trans-fatty Acids • Trans-fatty acids – fatty acids that are produced when polyunsaturated oils are hydrogenated to make them more solid • Raises LDL and lower HDL

  22. Percentages of Saturated, Polyunsaturated and Monounsaturated Fats in Common Vegetable Oils Figure 8.5

  23. Reducing Total Fat In Your Diet • Read food labels • Choose fat-free or low-fat • Use olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil • Eat fish high in Omega 3’s • Choose lean meats • Add walnuts and flaxseeds • Select nonfat dairy products • Limit processed and convenience foods

  24. Vitamins • Vitamins – essential, organic compounds that promote growth and help maintain life and health • Fat soluble – are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of fats (vitamins A, D, E, and K) • Water soluble – easily dissolved with water (B complex and vitamin C) • Hypervitaminosis – overuse of vitamin supplements leading to a toxic condition

  25. Minerals • Macrominerals • Trace minerals • Sodium • Calcium • Iron • Anemia • Pica • Hemochromatosis

  26. Determining Your Nutritional Needs • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) • Adequate Intake (AI) • Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) • Dietary Reference Intake (RDI) • Daily Values (DV)

  27. Reading a Food Label Figure 8.6

  28. ABC News: Nutrition Play Video | Nutrition

  29. ABC News: Nutrition Discussion Questions: • Discuss whether you think manufacturers are intentionally misleading consumers regarding serving size listings on their products. Why or why not? • What kinds of standards for food labeling would you recommend to manufacturers?

  30. The MyPyramid Plan Figure 8.7

  31. Making MyPyramid Work For You • Personalization • Gradual improvement • Physical activity • Variety • Moderation • Proportionality

  32. Know Your A B C’s • Aiming for Fitness • Building a healthy base • Choosing sensibly

  33. Let MyPyramid Be Your Guide • Work to achieve adequacy • Eat a balanced diet in moderation • Seek variety within groups

  34. Vegetarianism • Vegans • Lacto-vegetarians • Ovo-vegetarians • Lacto-ovo-vegetarians • Pesco-vegetarians • Semivegetarians (“non-red meat eaters”)

  35. Antioxidants • Oxidative stress • Free radicals • Vitamin C, E, beta-carotene and other carotenoids, and selenium • Lycopene • Lutein

  36. Folate • Folate – the form of vitamin B believed to protect against cardiovascular disease and decrease homocysteine • Homocysteine – amino acid that has been linked to vascular diseases • Dietary folate equivalent (DFE) – established to distinguish folate in food from its synthetic counterpart folic acid

  37. Gender and Nutrition • Women • Menarche • Pregnancy • Lactation • Menopause • Men • Differ from women in body size and composition • Metabolism

  38. Changing The “Meat And Potatoes” American • Heavy meat eaters at risk for prostate cancer and colon cancer • 3 servings of fruit or vegetables per day lower chance of stroke in men by 22 percent • Diets high in fruit and vegetables lower risk of lung cancer in smokers • Fruits and vegetables protect against cancer of the lower esophagus

  39. Improved Eating For The College Student • Fast foods • Ask for nutritional info • Avoid mayo and sauces • Hold the cheese • Order single burgers • Order salads, use dressing sparingly • Avoid deep fried foods • Avoid giant sizes

  40. Improved Eating For The College Student – cont. • When funds are short • Use coupons • Shop at discount warehouses • Plan ahead for menu • Purchase meat and other products in volume • Cook large meals and freeze leftovers • If you have no money, check with local health department for assistance programs

  41. Food Safety • Food-borne illness • Responsible use at home • Food irradiation • Food additives • Food allergies or food intolerance • Organically grown foods

  42. The USDA’s Fight BAC! Figure 8.10

  43. Recognizing the Common Foodborne Illnesses Table 8.7