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Types of Irrigation . Brenton Bartelt. History . Flood irrigation: Channels dug in fields, inefficient Egyptians and Mesopotamians Surface irrigation based off of flooding of Nile River Asia and Europe Diverted water from rivers and streams to fields

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types of irrigation

Types of Irrigation

Brenton Bartelt

history
History
  • Flood irrigation:
    • Channels dug in fields, inefficient
  • Egyptians and Mesopotamians
    • Surface irrigation based off of flooding of Nile River
  • Asia and Europe
    • Diverted water from rivers and streams to fields
  • Common precipitation used to be a sufficient source of irrigation for crops
irrigation methods
Irrigation Methods
  • Surface
    • Flood irrigation
  • Localized
    • Water distributed at low pressure
  • Sprinkler
    • Water distributed through pipes, distributed over field
  • Sub-Irrigation
    • Water directed towards root zone
  • In-ground irrigation
    • Everything buried underground, more presentable
surface irrigation
Surface Irrigation
  • Historically most common form
  • Water controlled by dikes, plugged by soil
  • Commonly used in rice fields
    • Split up into section
  • The field water efficiency is 20 to 50 percent.
localized irrigation
Localized Irrigation
  • Known as drip irrigation
  • Drips on individual plants
  • Positioned to drip on roots
  • Used in produce production
  • 80 to 60 percent water efficiency
sprinkler irrigation
Sprinkler Irrigation
  • water is piped to one or more central locations
  • Sprinklers, spray, guns are permanently mounted
  • Center Pivot or Lateral Move
  • Low Energy Precision Application better applies water
  • Hydraulic or electric powered

with GPS guidance

sub irrigation
Sub-Irrigation
  • Used on crops in high water tables
  • Water comes up from below root zone
  • Used in grasslands or river valleys
  • Combined with drainage infrastructure
  • Used in commercial greenhouse production
  • Ran for 10-2- minutes, water absorbed excess is recycled
in ground irrigation
In-ground irrigation
  • Commercial and residential systems
  • Divided into zones because of lack of pressure and water
  • Irrigation controller sends signal to turn on or off
  • Smart controller- decides when to water
  • Sprinkler head extends/retracts based on pressure
water sources
Water Sources
  • Drawn from rivers or streams
  • Drawn from underground wells
  • Treated waste water
  • Recycled drain water
  • Floodwater harvesting
    • Diverting flood water
measuring efficiency
Measuring Efficiency
  • Irrigation methods are efficient enough to spread water to an entire field uniformly
  • Field Water Efficiency (%) = (Water Transpired by Crop ÷ Water Applied to Field) x 100
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