Designing the test and test questions
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Designing the Test and Test Questions. Jason Peake. Principles of Testing. Validity Does the test measure what it is supposed to measure? Does the test require student performance as described by the objective?. Principles of Testing. Reliability

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Principles of testing l.jpg
Principles of Testing

  • Validity

    • Does the test measure what it is supposed to measure?

    • Does the test require student performance as described by the objective?


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Principles of Testing

  • Reliability

    • Does the test generate the same results each time it is given?

    • Is the test affected by misinterpretation

      • Poorly written directions

      • Vague questions

      • Misleading words

      • Not sure of response


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Why do we evaluate students?

  • Motivate students

  • Measures achievement

  • Identify areas for review

  • Check effectiveness of materials, teaching method, and teacher

  • Assign grades


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Agenda

  • Aligning evaluation with level of learning.

  • Developing a test blueprint and preparing to write items

  • Common pitfalls when writing test questions

  • Writing questions at various levels of performance


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CATEGORY

Evaluation

Synthesis

Analysis

Application

Comprehension

Knowledge

SKILL

Judge

Combine

Break apart

Apply principles

Understanding

Recall

Defining objectives using Bloom’s Taxonomy


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Sample Verbs

Knowledge

  • Cite, define, identify, label, list, match, name, recognize, reproduce, select, state

    Comprehension

  • Classify, convert, describe, distinguish between, explain, extend, give examples, illustrate, interpret, paraphrase, summarize, translate

    Application

  • Apply, arrange, compute, construct, demonstrate, discover, modify, operate, predict, prepare, produce, relate, show, solve, use


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Sample Verbs continued

Analysis

  • Analyze, associate, determine, diagram, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, estimate, infer, order, outline, point out, separate, subdivide

    Synthesis

  • Combine, compile, compose, construct, create, design, develop, devise, formulate, integrate, modify, organize, plan, propose, rearrange, reorganize, revise, rewrite, tell, write

    Evaluation

  • Appraise, assess, compare, conclude, contrast, criticize, discriminate, evaluate, judge, justify, support, weigh


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Agenda

  • Aligning evaluation with level of learning.

  • Developing a test blueprint and preparing to write items

  • Common pitfalls when writing test questions

  • Writing questions at various levels of performance


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Test blueprint (specifications)

  • Matrix of number of test questions by topic and level of objective

  • Helps you plan your test

  • Do before writing items



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Agenda

  • Aligning evaluation with level of learning.

  • Developing a test blueprint and preparing to write items

  • Common pitfalls when writing test questions

  • Writing questions at various levels of performance


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Preparing to write items

  • Create test items while preparing class lessons

  • Make note of questions asked frequently by students

  • Make note of misconceptions made frequently by students during class or homework

  • Invite students to submit items at the end of each class or at other times

  • Pull questions from formative assessments.


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Agenda

  • Aligning evaluation with level of learning.

  • Developing a test blueprint and preparing to write items

  • Common pitfalls when writing test questions

  • Writing questions at various levels of performance


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Common pitfalls

  • Providing unintended cues

  • Using trick questions

  • Using distractors that are obviously incorrect

  • Using NOT or EXCEPT in the question

  • Including all of the above, none of the above, or only A and B as option choices


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Preparing for test-wise students

  • Longest answer

  • “C” as correct answer

  • Avoid picking “always” or “never”

  • Opposites

  • Scientific sounding

  • Avoid simple & obvious

  • Related word

  • Guess


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Agenda

  • Aligning evaluation with level of learning.

  • Developing a test blueprint and preparing to write items

  • Common pitfalls when writing test questions

  • Writing questions at various levels of performance


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Levels of performance

Lower levels (knowledge, comprehension, and application)

  • Recognize the principle in altered format.

  • Match component parts with vocabulary.

  • Identify example seen before.

  • Recognize an example never seen before.

  • Solve a problem using familiar format, but different specifics.

    Higher levels (analysis, synthesis, evaluation)

  • Pick out components of a situation.

  • Problem solve by combining elements.

  • Make judgments of value.


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Categories of Test Questions

  • Test can roughly be broken into

    • Objective

      • Multiple choice

      • Matching

      • Completion

      • True false

    • Subjective

      • Short answer and/or Essay

      • Oral test

      • Case Study


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Sample multiple choice items

Lower levels

  • Which of the following is an example of erosion? (choices include one or more used in class)

  • Identify the definition of water erosion?

  • Which of the following is an example of erosion? (choices never seen in class)

  • Here is an erosion scenario. Which of the following principles apply?

    Higher levels

  • Which of the following solutions would be the best to apply in the scenario described below to solve the erosion problem?

  • Here is an erosion problem situation. Identify which principle from this class could be used to solve it.


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Sample multiple choice distracters

A term used in the unit but referring to a different concept

  • Cause of erosion – no till farming

    An everyday term that is close but misleading in meaning

  • Cause of erosion – hydrofoil

    A common misconception or confusion students have

  • Cause of erosion – lack of diverse soil particle size

    A plausible word or phrase that is meaningless but derives from something in the stem

  • Cause of erosion – systemic erosion syndrome


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Matching

  • Appropriate for only knowledge level testing

  • Use a reasonable number of items 7 – 12

  • All premises in one list, all responses in another list

  • Premises can be long, but try to keep responses short

  • Use more responses than premises


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Clear Directions

____ 1. List premise

____ 2. List premise

____ 3. List Premise

____ 4. List Premise

____ 5. List Premise

____ 6. List Premise

  • Response

  • Response

  • Response

  • Response

  • Response

  • Response

  • Response


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Completion Items

  • Most useful for lower order levels of learning

  • Use your own words

  • Be sure only one answer can apply

  • Keep all blanks the same length

  • Avoid grammatical clues


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Complete the meaning of each statement by writing the correct word in the corresponding numbere blank

1. A thermometer should be rinsed in _____________ water.

2. The NPK in fertilizers stands for _____________, _____________, and _____________


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True / False Questions correct word in the corresponding numbere blank

  • Can be used to check for knowledge and comprehension

  • Keep questions simple

  • Make entirely true or entirely false

  • Avoid double negative items


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Writing True / False Questions correct word in the corresponding numbere blank

  • For each of the statements below circle “T” for true and circle “F” for false.

    • T F Swine gestation period is 33 days.

  • For each of the statements below circle “T” for true and circle “F” for false and explain in the blank why it is false.

    • T F Swine gestation period is 33 days.

      _________________________________


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Subjective Test Questions correct word in the corresponding numbere blank

  • Short answer and/or Essay

  • Oral test

  • Case Study


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Short Answer and/or Essay correct word in the corresponding numbere blank

  • May require many different behaviors:

  • Comparison, for or against, cause and effect, explanation, summary, analysis, describe relationships, apply rules, or discussion


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Oral Test correct word in the corresponding numbere blank

  • All students must receive the same item stated in clear concise manner designed to elicit correct answers arranged in logical order.


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Case Study correct word in the corresponding numbere blank

  • Problem is practical and realistic

  • Requires comprehension of prior learning and application of that learning


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Subjective Test Questions correct word in the corresponding numbere blank

  • Short answer and/or Essay

  • Oral test

  • Case Study

  • Theses subjective test questions or subjective test require a criteria to be graded. We will work on grading criteria tomorrow.


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Which Type of Question to Use? correct word in the corresponding numbere blank

  • Select the appropriate technique to test the student competence at the level of cognition required by the objective.

  • Avoid one type of test or test question

  • We know students have different strengths

    • Visual

    • Audio

    • kinesthetic


Materials in this presentation developed in part by l.jpg
Materials in this presentation developed in part by… correct word in the corresponding numbere blank

Brian Parr

University of Georgia

Dr. Dawn Zimmaro

University of Texas


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