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Artificial Intelligence. Rule-based expert systems Lecture Eight. Road Map. We will discuss the followings: What is knowledge? Expert Systems (ES). Rule-based Expert Systems. Development team in Expert Systems. Rule-based Expert Systems structure. The course final exam!!.

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial Intelligence

Rule-based expert systems

Lecture Eight

Road map
Road Map

  • We will discuss the followings:

    • What is knowledge?

    • Expert Systems (ES).

    • Rule-based Expert Systems.

    • Development team in Expert Systems.

    • Rule-based Expert Systems structure.

    • The course final exam!!

What is knowledge
What is knowledge?

Knowledge is a theoretical or practical understanding of a subject or a domain.

Knowledge is also the sum of what is currently known.

Who is acknowledged as an expert
Who is acknowledged as an expert?

  • An expert has the followings:

    • A deep knowledge (of both facts and rules)

    • And strong practical experience in a particular narrow domain.

  • In general, an expert is a skilful person who can do things other people cannot.

How do experts think
How do experts think?

  • Experts express their knowledge in the form of rules for problem solving.

Imagine, you meet an alien! He wants to cross a road. Can you help him?

How do experts think cont
How do experts think? – Cont.

IF the ‘traffic light’ is green

THEN the action is go

IF the ‘traffic light’ is red

THEN the action is stop

A rule provides some description of how to solve a problem.

Artificial intelligence

Expert System

  • As soon as knowledge is provided by a human expert, we can input it into a computer.

    • We expect the computer to solve a problem that have to be solved by an expert.

    • To be able to integrate new knowledge.

    • To be able to show its knowledge in a form that is easy to read and understand (i.e. Natural Language).

    • To be able to explain how it reaches a particular conclusion.

Expert system
Expert system

An expert system is a computer program capable of performing at the level of a human expert in a narrow problem area.

Expert system shells
Expert system Shells

  • A large number of companies produce software for rule-based expert system development .

  • Can be considered as an expert system with the knowledge removed.

  • Their main advantage is that the system builder concentrate on the knowledge itself rather than on learning a programming language.

Expert system shells cont
Expert system Shells – Cont.

  • Examples for available free and commercial Expert System Shells

    • Aion

    • Attar

    • CLIPS

    • Corticon

    • drools

  • See the following link for a longer list


Expert system development team
Expert System Development Team

In general, there are five members of the expert system development


Artificial intelligence

Development Team

Project Manager

Domain Expert

Knowledge Engineer


Expert System

End User

The production model
The production model

Long-term memory

Short-term memory





Structure of a rule based es
Structure of a rule-based ES

Knowledge base




Inference Engine

Explanation facilities

User Interface


Fundamental characteristics of an expert system
Fundamental characteristics of an expert system

  • High-quality performance.

  • Good speed in reaching a solution.

  • Apply heuristics to guide the reasoning to reduce the search area for a solution.

  • Explanation capability.

Advantages of rule based expert systems
Advantages of rule-based expert systems

  • Natural knowledge representation.

  • Uniform structure.

  • Separation of knowledge from its processing.

  • Dealing with incomplete and uncertain knowledge.

Disadvantages of rule based expert systems
Disadvantages of rule-based expert systems

  • Opaque relations between rules. Related to

  • The lack of hierarchical knowledge representation.

  • Ineffective search strategy.

  • Inability to learn. Human expert, knows when to ‘break the rules’.

Thank you


Good luck insha2 Allah