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RENAISSANCE. 15TH CENTURY ITALY. SOURCE: A HISTORY OF THE MODERN WORLD – PALMER, COLTON, KRAMER. CHANGES. NEW AND INVIGORATING ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE WORLD. BREAKING DOWN OF MEDIEVAL CERTAINTIES. MIDDLE AGES  RENAISSANCE. RELIGIOUS WORDLY LIFE IS LESS IMPORTANT LIFE OF CONTEMPLATION

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renaissance

RENAISSANCE

15TH CENTURY ITALY

SOURCE: A HISTORY OF THE MODERN WORLD – PALMER, COLTON, KRAMER

changes
CHANGES
  • NEW AND INVIGORATING ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE WORLD
  • BREAKING DOWN OF MEDIEVAL CERTAINTIES
middle ages renaissance
MIDDLE AGES  RENAISSANCE
  • RELIGIOUS
  • WORDLY LIFE IS LESS IMPORTANT
  • LIFE OF CONTEMPLATION
  • RESPECT FOR POVERTY
  • WORSHIP OF GOD
  • SECULAR
  • LIFE OF INVOLVEMENT AND HUMAN ACTIVITY
  • ENJOYMENT OF WEALTH (BY SOME!)
  • DEMONSTRATION OF HUMAN POWER
  • MAN SHAPED HIS OWN DESTINY

OFTEN A COMBINATION OF ATTITUDES

rebirth
REBIRTH
  • RE-BIRTH OF GRECO-ROMAN CIVILISATION
  • “NEW” CULTURE WAS NEITHER THEOLOGICAL NOR SCIENTIFIC BUT ASKED WHAT HUMAN BEINGS OUGHT TO BE AND DO:
  • STYLE
  • TASTE
  • DECORUM
  • PERSONAL CHARACTER
  • EDUCATION
city states
CITY-STATES
  • THE BIGGEST AND MOST BUSTLING TOWNS IN EUROPE
  • THESE TOWNS WERE

INDEPENDENT CITY-STATES:

  • CONTROLLED BY MERCHANT OLIGARCHIES
  • NO KINGS
  • POPES LARGELY ABSENT (WHY?)
trade
TRADE
  • MERCHANTS MADE FORTUNES IN COMMERCE
  • LENT MONEY TO POPES AND PRINCES
  • MERCHANTS MADE FURTHER FORTUNES AS BANKERS
florence
FLORENCE
  • CHIEF CITY IN TUSCANY

(POPULATION 60,000)

  • PRODUCTION OF WOOLENS
famous people
FAMOUS PEOPLE
  • DANTE
  • PETRARCH
  • BOCCACCIO
  • MACHIAVELLI
  • MEDICI FAMILY
medici family
MEDICI FAMILY
  • GIOVANNI de MEDICI (1360 – 1429)

MERCHANT AND BANKER

  • COSIMO de MEDICI (1389 – 1464)
  • LORENZO THE MAGNIFICENT (1449 – 1492)

De MEDICI FAMILY RULED

OVER FLORENCE UNTIL

THE FAMILY DIED OUT IN 1737

slide10
ART

ARCHITECTURE

  • SPACE WAS NO LONGER UNKNOWABLE AND DIVINE
  • ADAPTATION OF GRECO-ROMAN ARCHITECTURE
  • GRANDEUR, IMPORTANCE, CONVENIENCE FOR HUMAN USE
slide11
ART

SCULPTURE

  • GREEK/ROMAN TRADITION
  • INDEPENDENT AND FREE-STANDING ART
  • (NUDE) HUMAN BEINGS
slide12
ART

PAINTING

  • FEW EXAMPLES FROM GRECO-ROMAN TIMES
  • INVENTIONS:
  • PAINTING IN OILS
  • PERSPECTIVE
  • HUMAN ANATOMY
  • MORE EXPRESSION
  • INDIVIDUAL PERSONALITIES
humanism
HUMANISM
  • RISING INTEREST IN HUMANE LETTERS = WRITING ABOUT MANKIND
  • AS MAIN LIFE’S WORK
  • TO ACHIEVE ARTISTIC EFFECT
  • TO AMUSE THE READER
  • CLASSICAL INFLUENCES => WROTE IN LATIN (AND ITALIAN...FLORENTINE BECOMES STANDARD OF MODERN ITALIAN)
  • WRITING WITHOUT FRAMEWORK OF RELIGIOUS BELIEF
  • STYLE WAS VERY IMPORTANT
  • HISTORICAL WRITING CREATED GROUP IDENTITY
  • NEW CRITICAL ATTITUDE
education
EDUCATION
  • DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OR LEVELS INTO SEPARATE CLASSES, SEPARTE ROOMS, WITH OWN TEACHER
  • LATIN & GREEK
  • RHETORIC
  • IDEAL RENAISSANCE MAN:
  • WELL-ROUNDED PERSON
  • ABLE TO CONVERSE EASILY
  • KNOWLEDGABLE IN CLASSICAL SUBJECTS
  • PROFICIENT IN SPRTOS AND ARMS
  • ABLE TO DANCE AND APPRECIATE MUSIC
  • WILLING TO SHOW CONSIDERATION FOR OTHERS
women
WOMEN
  • BY THE AGE OF 18 MARRIED TO OLDER (ESTABLISHED) MEN
  • DIFFERENT AGES REINFORCED GENDER DIVISION:

MEN => CAREER WOMEN => HOUSEHOLD

politics
POLITICS
  • NO UNIFICATION OF CITY-STATES
  • WARS FOUGHT WITH CONDOTIERRI (PRIVATE LEADERS OF ARMED BANDS)
  • POLITICS BECAME A TANGLED WEB
  • MACHIAVELLLI THE PRINCE
  • TO CONVINCE ITALIANS OF

THE NEED TO UNIFY

  • “THE END JUSTIFIES THE MEANS”
6 may 1527 the sacking of rome
6 MAY 1527 – THE SACKING OF ROME
  • ITALY IS DIVIDED AND NOT PREPARED AND IN 1527 A GROUP OF SPANISH AND GERMAN MERCENARIES ATTACK ROME
  • THOUSANDS WERE KILLED
  • POPE IMPRISONED
  • LOOTING AND DESTRUCTION
  • THE GLORIES OF THE RENAISSANCE BEGIN TO FADE AWAY IN ITALY BUT LIVES ON IN THE REST OF EUROPE
petrarch
*PETRARCH
  • FLORENTINE EXILE
  • FIRST MAN OF LETTERS
  • SON OF A MERCHANT
  • TRAVELLED FRANCE AND ITALY
  • WRITING SHOWS THE COMPLEX, CONTRADICTORY ATTITUDES OF EARLY REN THOUGHT
  • ATRRACTED BY LOVE, LIFE, BEAUTY, TRAVEL
  • ASPIRED LITERARY FAME
  • MORAL PHILOSOPHY
  • WHAT WAS THE GOOD LIFE?
boccaccio
*BOCCACCIO
  • WROTE DECAMERON IN ITALIAN
  • SCHOLARLY TYPE
dante
*DANTE
  • WROTE DIVINE COMEDY (IN VERNACULAR)