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Chapter 8:

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Chapter 8:

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  1. Chapter 8: Learning

  2. Chapter 8: Outline • Learning • Classical Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • Learning by Observation

  3. 1. Learning • Learning • Learn through Association

  4. 1. Learning • Associative Learning

  5. 1. Learning • Types of Learning • Classical Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • Observational Learning

  6. 2. Classical Conditioning • Classical Conditioning:

  7. 2. Classical Conditioning

  8. 2. Classical Conditioning • Ivan Pavlov • 1849-1936 • Russian physician/ neurophysiologist • Nobel Prize in 1904

  9. 2. Classical Conditioning • John B. Watson • viewed psychology as objective science • generally agreed-upon consensus today

  10. 2. Classical Conditioning Before Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCR (salivation) No salivation During Conditioning After Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) CS (tone) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCR (salivation) CR (salivation)

  11. Fig. 8.2 An apparatus for Pavlovian conditioning. A tube carries saliva from the dog’s mouth to a lever that activates a recording device (far left). During conditioning, various stimuli can be paired with a dish of food placed in front of the dog. The device pictured here is more elaborate than the one Pavlov used in his early experiments.

  12. 2. Classical Conditioning • Pavlov’s device for recording salivation

  13. 2. Classical Conditioning • Unconditioned Response (UCR) • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

  14. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) • Conditioned Response (CR)

  15. 2. Classical Conditioning • 5 major conditioning processes: 1. acquisition 2. extinction 3. spontaneous recovery 4. generalization 5. discrimination • 1. Acquisition (initial learning)

  16. UCS (passionate kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) UCS (passionate Kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) CR (sexual arousal) 2. Classical Conditioning

  17. 2. Classical Conditioning • 2. Extinction & Spontaneous Recovery • Extinction: diminishing of a Conditioned Response • Ex: after ringing the bell & not giving food the dogs began to salivate less • Spontaneous Recovery:

  18. Acquisition (CS+UCS) Strength of CR Spontaneous recovery of CR Extinction (CS alone) Extinction (CS alone) Pause 2. Classical Conditioning

  19. 2. Classical Conditioning • 3. Generalization • 4. Adaptive Discrimination

  20. 60 Drops of saliva in 30 seconds 50 40 30 20 10 Hind paw Pelvis Shoulder Front paw 0 Thigh Trunk Foreleg Part of body stimulated 2. Classical Conditioning

  21. 2. Classical Conditioning “Post” Pavlov: • Cognitive Processes: • Biological Predispositions:

  22. 3. Operant Conditioning

  23. 3. Operant Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment

  24. 3. Operant Conditioning • Operant Behavior • Respondent Behavior • Law of Effect

  25. 3. Operant Conditioning • B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) • elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect

  26. 3. Operant Conditioning • Skinner Box • Operant chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer • contains devices to record responses

  27. Fig. 8.9 The Skinner box. This simple device, invented by B. F. Skinner, allows careful study of operant conditioning. When the rat presses the bar, a pellet of food or a drop of water is automatically released. (A photograph of a Skinner box appears in Chapter 1.)

  28. 3. Operant Conditioning • Reinforcer • Shaping

  29. 3. Operant Conditioning

  30. 3. Operant Conditioning • Primary Reinforcer • Conditioned Reinforcer

  31. Fig. 8.15 Poker chips normally have little or no value for chimpanzees, but this chimp will work hard to earn them once he learns that the “Chimp-O-Mat” will dispense food in exchange for them.

  32. 3. Operant Conditioning Schedules of Reinforcement: • A. Continuous Reinforcement • B. Partial (Intermitent) Reinforcement

  33. 3. Operant Conditioning • C. Fixed Ratio (FR)

  34. 3. Operant Conditioning • D. Variable Ratio (VR)

  35. 3. Operant Conditioning • E. Fixed Interval (FI)

  36. 3. Operant Conditioning • F. Variable Interval (VI)

  37. Number of responses Fixed Ratio 1000 Variable Ratio Fixed Interval 750 Rapid responding near time for reinforcement 500 Variable Interval 250 Steady responding 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Time (minutes) 3. Operant Conditioning: Schedules of Reinforcement

  38. 3. Operant Conditioning • Punishment

  39. 3. Operant Conditioning

  40. 3. Operant Conditioning “Post” Skinner: • Cognitive Map • Latent Learning

  41. 3. Operant Learning: Latent Learning

  42. 3. Operant Conditioning: Post Skinner • Overjustification Effect • Intrinsic Motivation • Extrinsic Motivation

  43. Operant vs Classical Conditioning

  44. 4. Observational Learning • Observational Learning • Modeling

  45. 4. Observational Learning • Mirror Neurons

  46. 4. Observational Learning • Alfred Bandura’s Experiments • Bobodoll • Adults threw and yelled at a doll and then the children acted in the same manor

  47. 4. Observational Learning • This 14-month-old boy is imitating behavior he has seen on TV

  48. Fig. 8.26 This graph shows the average number of aggressive acts per minute before and after television broadcasts were introduced into a Canadian town. The increase in aggression after television watching began was significant. Two other towns that already had television were used for comparison. Neither showed significant increases in aggression during the same time period. (Data compiled from Joy et al., 1986.)

  49. 4. Observational Learning • Prosocial Behavior • Antisocial Behavior