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The Coagulant and Flocculant for alternative. Present to Provincial Waterworks Authority By Behn Meyer Techno-Chemical. Behn Meyer Group Since 1840. Group History Behn Meyer today Behn Meyer Thailand Behn Meyer Chemical (T) Co., Ltd. Behn Meyer Techno-Chemicals (T) Co., Ltd.

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the coagulant and flocculant for alternative

The Coagulant and Flocculant for alternative

Present to

Provincial Waterworks Authority


Behn Meyer Techno-Chemical

behn meyer group since 1840

Behn Meyer GroupSince 1840

  • Group History
  • Behn Meyer today
  • Behn Meyer Thailand
  • Behn Meyer Chemical (T) Co., Ltd.
  • Behn Meyer Techno-Chemicals (T) Co., Ltd.
1 group history
1. Group History
  • Milestones
    • 1840 founded as Behn Meyer & Co. in Singapore
    • 1857 foundation of Arnold Otto Meyer in Hamburg
    • 1914 Singapore, Malaya, Indonesia, China, Phillipines,
    • 1955 re-incorporated in Singapore as Behn Meyer & Co. (Pte.) Ltd.
    • 2001 Arnold Otto Meyer re-named Behn Meyer (D) Holding AG &Co
  • Milestones Behn Meyer Thailand
    • 1907 founded under the name of Behn Meyer & Co.
    • 1978 foundation of Behn Meyer Engineering Co., Ltd.
    • 1982 foundation of Behn Meyer & Co. (T) Ltd.
    • 2002 foundation of Behn Meyer Chemical (T) Co. Ltd.
    • 2007 BME re-named Behn Meyer Techno-chemicals (T)
2 behn meyer today
The focus of the group today is on the supply and distribution of specialty products, representing worldclass manufacturers or from its own production. 2. Behn Meyer today
2 behn meyer today5
2. Behn Meyer today

The group‘s business lines can be categorized into three main groups:

Chemical Agricare Trading

  • Countries
    • Singapore
    • Malaysia
    • Thailand
    • Indonesia
    • Vietnam
  • Myanmar
  • Cambodia
  • Germany
  • The Netherlands
The new alternative coagulantfor water treatment

Aluminum Chlorohydrate


Gulbrandsen Technologies,Inc

Clinton,NJ 08809 USA

what are coagulants

What Are Coagulants ?

Coagulants are chemicals, typically salts of iron or aluminum, that cause suspended solids in water to agglomerate into larger particles which can then be removed by physical separation methods.

common coagulants

Aluminum Sulfate (alum)

Aluminum Chloride

Ferric Sulfate

Ferric Chloride


Polyaluminum Salts



Silica Sulfates


Polymer Blends

Common Coagulants
aluminum chlorohydrate
Aluminum Chlorohydrate
  • ACH is a highly conc.Solution of polyaluminum hydroxychloride by having a highest Al conc. ( 23% Al2O3 )
  • The basicity of ACH at 83% is also the highest available for any polyaluminum based solution.
aluminum chlorohydrate12
Aluminum Chlorohydrate
  • The highly polymerized species in ACH have much higher cationic charge than Aluminum in standard salt.
  • ACH can offer both higher level of performance and lower dosages.
pac ach basicity
PAC / ACH Basicity
  • The polymeric aluminum species present are determined by the degree of neutralization, which is usually reported as BASICITY:

% Basicity= [OH] / (3 x [Al]) x 100

  • BASICITY (polymerization) is increased by replacing chloride ions with hydroxyl ions during manufacturing.
why pacl or ach
Why PACl or ACH?
  • The primary functional benefit of PACl’s / ACH vs traditional coagulants like Alum is the higher charge on the aluminum.
objective of coagulant
Objective of Coagulant

“ The Goal of using Coagulants in Water Treatment is the removal of Suspended Solids and soluble and insoluble organic material.”

suspended solid
Suspended Solid

Suspended Solids are stable in solution due to small size / low density and negative surface charge.

effects of solids
Effects of Solids

Potable Water

  • Turbidity
  • Taste & Odor
  • Cryptosporidium and Giardia

Waste Water

  • TSS - Total Suspended Solids
  • Corrosion (Erosive and biological)
  • Insoluble BOD
  • Insoluble Phosphorus
  • Organic acids; humic acid, fluvic acid, etc.
surface charge
Surface Charge

Negative Surface charges on particles help stabilize them in aqueous solution.

The higher the charge to surface area ratio, the more stable the particle

particle size matters
Particle Size Matters

Particle Classification mm mm/s

Gravel 1.0 100

Coarse Sand 0.4 42

Sand 0.1 8.0

Fine Sand 0.02 0.62

Silt 0.004 0.025

what are the benefit of the polymerization in pac ach
What are the Benefit of the Polymerization in PAC / ACH?
  • Increasing polymerization means Higher Cationic charge.
  • The aluminum maintains its charge in water longer and over a wider range of conditions.
1 benefit of higher charge
1: Benefit of Higher Charge
  • Higher Charge means more effective Charge Neutralization:

Schultz -Hardy Rule:

C = k / Z6

C = Concentration, Z = Charge, k = constant

schultz hardy theory vs real life application
Schultz-Hardy Theory vs. Real Life Application
  • Real Life: Other factors effect the charge neutralization mechanism; pH, Temperature, Hydrolysis
  • The bottom line is that the higher charge on the aluminum in PACl or ACH allows it to coagulate more solids with a lower dose than a simple aluminum or iron salt.
2 benefit of longer lasting charge

2: Benefit of Longer Lasting Charge

The aluminum chloride complex stays soluble longer than an aluminum sulfate ion

steps in the coagulation process simple metal salts
Steps in the Coagulation Process - Simple Metal Salts
  • Charge Neutralization - Positive Charge on Coagulant eliminates negative charge on particles - Minimal impactdue to time factor: 10-4 seconds
  • Coagulant forms hydroxide which has a larger physical structure.
  • Mixing causes particles to collide and they begin to agglomerate.
how do traditional coagulants work
How Do Traditional Coagulants Work?

When simple Aluminum (or Iron) salts are added to water, they produce a positively charged ion:

Al2(SO4)3 >>>>>> 2 Al3+ + 3 SO42-

The positive charge can destabilize the negative surface charge on suspended particles.

how do traditional coagulants remove toc
How Do Traditional Coagulants remove TOC?

Alum, for example, must be added until the pH falls into the range where the aluminum ion is soluble (< 5) and then removes the organic acid through charge neutralization.

Ferric chloride sometimes operates at pH < 4.

The problem is that the pH must be brought back up.

coagulation with pac ach
Coagulation with PAC/ACH
  • The charge neutralization with simple aluminum or iron coagulants happens very rapidly; 10-4 seconds.
  • The Charge neutralization with PAC/ACH occurs over a much larger time frame – giving more time for the higher charge to destabilize the particles
polyaluminum coagulants
Polyaluminum Coagulants
  • The complex structure of Polyaluminum Chlorides are stable in water in the pH range where aluminum typically forms aluminum hydroxide.
  • The charge on the complex is then available for direct interaction with the surface charges on the particles.
  • The structure of the complex remains as part of the floc, forming a smaller but denser floc than aluminum hydroxide.
steps in the coagulation process polyaluminum products
Steps in the Coagulation Process - Polyaluminum Products
  • Charge Neutralization - Positive Charge on Polyaluminum Complex eliminates negative charge on particles - Primary mechanism for reaction
  • Polyaluminum Complex is bonded to the particle which helps to build floc mass though continued agglomeration
  • Mixing causes particles to collide and they begin to agglomerate.
why ach works more effectively
Why ACH works more Effectively
  • More of the higher charge actually goes to charge neutralization. This means less is required to remove solids.
  • Also, in the case of TOC, a large drop in pH is not required because the aluminum stays soluble long enough to destabilize the organic acids.
key benefits of polyaluminum coagulants
Key Benefits of Polyaluminum Coagulants
  • LOWER DOSE - Higher Charge on Aluminum means less is needed.
  • Typical reductions in aluminum dose are
    • 30 - 60% for potable water, Higher for waste waters
  • SLUDGE REDUCTION - Lower dosage translate to less sludge, Polyaluminum sludges are easier to dewater.
  • LESS pH ADJUSTMENT REQUIRED - pH is impacted less than with traditional coagulants
  • BETTER PERFORMANCE - Higher removal rates and wider working pH range

Renewable resources  Forest

Without change the water characteristics

Patented product and manufacturing process

tanac s a
  • Base on South part of Brazil, since 1948 of producing vegetable tannin extract
  • From 260 sq.kmof land, 60 million renewable trees, the company export to 70 countries, in total 30,000 tons of Tannin extract and 500,000 tons of woodchip per year.
environmental care

No effluent discharge

Scrubbers in the Chaminees with close loop/cycle

Filtration / separation of ash

Spent bark fuels the boiler (energy conservation)

Excess residues : ash + spent bark = organic fertilizer


Hoverth ( 1981) gave one of the most satisfactory definitions of tannin :

“Any phenolic compound of sufficiently high molecular weight containing sufficiently hydroxyls and other suitable group ( i.e. carboxyl ) to form effectively strong complexes with protein and other macromolecules under the particular environmental condition being studies “

Tannin can complex with Proteins, Starch, Cellulose, and Minerals.




Organic Cationic Vegetable Polymer

Non toxic, Low molecular weight

Easy solution


Consumed on the sludge

Does not change the pH

Act on a wide pH range




  • In colloidal systems, Tanfloc neutralises charges, unstabilizing them, producing flocculant and causing their sedimentation
  • Tanfloc chelates matellic ions dissolved in the water thus helping to reduce he medium’s degree of conductivity


Tanfloc can be used as the primary coagulant or as an auxiliary flocculation agent , being compatible with most of products sold on the market for this purpose



Quaternary ammonium tannate monomer



Quaternary ammonium tannate polymerized















Chelating characteristic













Chelating characteristic



TANFLOC- Flocs Form

An irregular form , presenting a larger surface area than other flocculants with round flocs. This enable more efficient clarification with minor turbidity in final treated water

tanfloc sedimentation
TANFLOC - Sedimentation
  • Up to the floc size proportionally, small flocs result slower but more efficient clarification and obtained when dosage is too low.
  • Large floc always faster rate but clarifiction is not always satisfactory because of reduced surface area contact.
  • Formation of medium size flocs provides the optimum rate of sedimentation and clarification efficiency
tanfloc sludge
TANFLOC - Sludge

The sludge generate from water treatment with TANFLOC is organicand is notof environmental concern like Aluminum based flocculants. TANFLOC sludge can therefore be used as an agricultural organic compost.

tanfloc chlorinating
TANFLOC - Chlorinating
  • Base on organic product of vegetable origin, the use of chlorine should be restricted to the final stage of water treatment after sedimentation.
  • In contact with Chlorine will reduce its efficiency and result of formation of undesirable chlorination by- products
tanfloc main fields
TANFLOC - Main Fields:

Waste water:





Pulp and paper

Drinking water


Behn Meyer Techno-Chemicals(T) Co.,ltd.189 Moo 6 Bangkok-Chonburi( New highway)Rd. Tabyao, Ladkrabang, Bangkok , THAILAND 10520tel. 0 2327 9800fax 0 2360 6076