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Cranial nerves. Nervi craniales. Cranial nerves. 12 pairs Emerging from the brain stem ( except CN I and CN II), where they have their nuclei ( somatomotor , somatosensitive , sensoric , parasympathic ) Outside brain - ganglias (sensitive, parasympathetic )

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cranial nerves

Cranial nerves

Nervi craniales

cranial nerves1
Cranial nerves
  • 12 pairs
  • Emergingfromthe brain stem (except CN I and CN II), wheretheyhavetheirnuclei (somatomotor, somatosensitive, sensoric, parasympathic)
  • Outside brain - ganglias (sensitive, parasympathetic)
  • Sympatheticfibresjoinalongthecourse, fromplexusesfollowingthebloodvessels
cranial nerves2
Cranialnerves
  • CN I – n. olfactorius - sensoric
  • CN II – n. opticus - sensoric
  • CN III – n. oculomotorius - motor + PS
  • CN IV – n. trochlearis - motor
  • CN V – n. trigeminus – sensitive + motor
  • CN VI – n. abducens - motor
  • CN VII – n. facialis – motor + PS
  • CN VIII – n. vestibulocochlearis - sensoric
  • CN IX – n. glossopharyngeus – PS + sens + motor + senz
  • CN X – n. vagus – PS + motor + sensitive + sensoric
  • CN XI – n. accessorius - motor
  • CN XII – n. hypoglossus – motor
general scheme for cn studying
General scheme for CN studying
  • number, Latin and English term
  • developmental type of CN
  • nuclei + their location
  • transmitted modalities
  • where CN submerge into skull
  • course of CN + topography
  • branches
  • overview of supplied area
  • clinical examination, reflexes
  • palsy / iritation
i n olfactorius
I – n. olfactorius
  • Olfactory nerve
  • Rather bundle of nerve fibres, than a nerve
  • Pure sensoric nerve
  • Bipolar neurons
  • Ability to regenerate
  • N. terminalis, n. vomeronasalis - rudiments
olfactory tract
Olfactorytract
  • Fila olfactoria, bulbus – interconnection, tractus, trigonum, striaolfactoria (med. + lat.), brain areas
  • Disorders: anosmia, parosmia, kakosmia
ii n opticus
II – n. opticus
  • Optic nerve
  • Diencephalon pouch
  • Consist of axons of the 3rd nerves of the optic tract
  • Covers: vagina externa + interna (from meninges)
  • A.+ V. centralis retinae
  • Pars intraocularis
  • Pars orbitalis
  • Pars canalis optici
  • Pars intracranialis
optic tract
Optictract
  • N. opticus –> chiasma opticum –> tractusopticus
  • Disorders: amaurosis, hemianopsia, scotom
external muscles of the eye ball
Externalmusclesoftheeye-ball
  • 4 recti (superior, inferior, lateralis, medialis)
  • 2 oliqui (superior + inferior)
  • m. levator palpebrae superioris
  • smooth muscles: m. orbitalis, mm. tarsales
nerves for the eye movement1
Nervesfortheeyemovement
  • CN III, IV and VI for 7 muscles
  • CN IV and VI pure somatomotor functions
  • CN III – somatomotor + PS functions
iii n oculomotorius
III - n. oculomotorius
  • Oculomotor nerve
  • nc. oculomotorius (somatomotor)
  • nc. Edinger-Westphal (PS)
  • Ramus superior + inferior (r. communicans ad ggl. ciliare)
  • Palsy: diplopia, divergent strabismus, ptosis, mydriasis
  • Innervates:
    • m. rectus superior
    • m. rectus medialis
    • m. rectus inferior
    • m. obliquus inferior
    • m. levator palpebrae sup.
ggl ciliare
ggl. ciliare
  • Ciliary ganglion
slide23
m. sphincterpupilae
  • m. dilatatorpupilae
  • m. ciliaris
iv n trochlearis
IV - n. trochlearis
  • Trochlear nerve, pure somatomotor
  • Innervates m. obliquus superior
  • Nucleus trochlearis
  • Only one which emerges from the brain stem dorsally
  • sinus cavernosus, fissura orbitalis superior, ATC Zinni
  • Palsy: diplopiawhen looking down and laterally (downstairs)
iv n abducens
IV - n. abducens
  • Abducens nerve, pure motor (nc. abducens)
  • Innervates m. rectus lateralis
  • Dorello´s canal, sinus cavernosus, fissura orbitalis superior, ATC Zinni
  • Palsy: diplopia, convergent strabism
v n trigeminus
V – n. trigeminus
  • Trigeminal nerve – 3 branches
  • 3 sensitive nuclei:
    • nc. mesencephalicus
    • nc. pontinus
    • nc. spinalis (in medulla oblongata)
  • 1 motor nucleus: nc. motorius
  • Vegetative part joins along the course
  • Emerging from the pons
  • Sensitive ganglion trigeminale (Gasseri)
  • PS ganglions (ciliare, pterygopalatinum, oticum, submandibulare)
v 1 n opthalmicus
V1 – n. opthalmicus
  • Senzitive nerv
  • 3 main branches:
    • n. frontalis
    • n. lacrimalis (sensitive + PS)
    • n. nasociliaris
  • Connections with nerves for eye-movement (sensitive fibres)
  • Parasympatic fibres for n. lacrimalis from connection from n. zygomaticus (V2)
v 2 n maxillaris
V2 – n. maxillaris
  • Sensitive nerve
  • Parasympathetic fibres for ggl. pterygopalatinum from n. facialis
  • passes foramen rotundum, branches out in fossa pterygopalatina
    • n. infraorbitalis
    • n. zygomaticus
    • nn. pterygopalatini
v 3 n mandibularis
V3 – n. mandibularis
  • Sensitive and motor nerve
  • Parasympatic fibres for ggl. oticum from n. IX,

for ggl. submandibulare from VII

  • passes foramen ovale, branches out in fossa infratemporalis
v 3 n mandibularis1
V3 – n. mandibularis
  • muscle branches (n. massetericus, nn. temporales profundi, nn. pterygoidei)
  • n. bucalis
  • n. auriculotemporalis
  • n. lingualis
  • n. alveolaris inferior
ganglia of trigeminus
Ganglia of trigeminus
  • gglciliare
  • PS fibres for glands interconnects in the ganglias
  • Sympatic fibres for smooth muscles pass through
  • Sensitive fibres pass through
  • gglpterygopalatinum
  • gglsubmandibulare
  • ggloticum
ggl ciliare1
ggl. ciliare
  • Ciliary ganglion
slide43
m. sphincterpupilae
  • m. dilatatorpupilae
  • m. ciliaris
ggl pterygopalatinum
ggl. pterygopalatinum
  • PS for lacrimal gland, glands of nose, mouth from n. petrosus major (n. VII)
ggl oticum
ggl. oticum
  • PS from nucleus of CN. IX to parotid gland
ggl submandibulare
ggl. submandibulare
  • Near of n. lingualis and submandibular gland
  • PS from n. lingualis (by chorda tympani, n. VII)
  • S from plexus of a. facialis
  • rr. glandulares for submandibular and sublingual glands (PS)
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