History • In the 11th Century AD, the Scots were composed of the Celts, Britons, Picts, and Angles. • Influences from Rome (St Ninian who founded the Celtic Church) • The harp has led some to think there were Oriental influences. • Other influences were the French, the Flemish, and the Moors of Spain.
THEME 1 Music as a means for ariculating/asserting cultural identity - Scottish music has retained its sounds and popularity while other traditional music was lost amongst the growing trends of popular music. They had what was theirs taken away. The Scots had to fight for their identity. They were proud of their music.
Theme 2 • Migration - In spite of migration, the music of Scotland has kept many of its traditional aspects. • 18th and 19th centuries – Highland and Lowland Clearances • Scots migrated to the US, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, and more. • Nova Scotia (New Scotland), heavily populated with Scots and retained Scots traditions and music more so than parts of Scotland itself.
Bagpipes • Its not the only instrument in Scottish music but it is an important one! • Although this particular form or bagpipe developed in Scotland, it is not the only one. • The earliest mention of bagpipes is in the 15th century but they could have been introduced as early as the 6th century • The original music of the bagpipe is called Piobaireachd which is Gaelic for ‘big noise’. • Piping was originally associated with hereditary piping families and professional pipers to clan chiefs. But the British army adopted it and spread the idea of pipe bands throughout the British Empire. Ironic??
Folk Music • Gaelic tradition and Scots tradition • Gaelic tradition = singing and harp • Group performances at balls, weddings, important events. • Bands consist of fiddle, bagpipe, accordion, tin whistle, cello, keyboard, and percussion. • Vocal music - melodic, haunting or rousing. • Famous Scots folk musicians are Will Fyffe, The Tannahill Weavers, Dougie McLean, The Proclaimers
References Campbell, James (1984). Invisible Country: A Journey through Scotland. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Houston, Robert, Allan Whyte, Ian D., Scottish Society, 1500-1800, Cambridge University Press, 2005. Prebble, John. The Highland Clearances, Penguin Books, 1963. McDonald, Chris; Sparling, Heather. Interpretations of Tradition: From Gaelic Song to Celtic Pop. Journal of Popular Music Studies, Sep2010, Vol. 22 Issue 3, p309-328, 20p Folk Music in Scottish Society. http://www.standingstones.com/scotfolk.html Dougie McLean. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0-uhk9AHIeM The Hired Hands. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JUChz2JFjBY Christine Primrose. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Ne4UIEWjXE Jack Lee. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z4CRwrR_lBE