BATCH -4 (2013) • TOPIC :- OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE
What is an ‘OPTICAL FIBRE’? An optical fiber is a flexible, transparent fiber made of very pure glass (silica) not much wider than a human hair that acts as "light pipe", to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber Optical fiber typically consists of a transparent core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction.
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ‘OPTICAL FIBRE’ • An optical fiber is a cylindrical dielectric waveguide (nonconducting waveguide) that transmits light along its axis, by the process of total internal reflection. • The fiber consists of a core surrounded by a cladding layer, both of which are made of dielectric materials. • To confine the optical signal in the core, the refractive index of the core must be greater than that of the cladding
LIMITATIONS OF COPPER CABLE • Low bandwidth-bandwidth is limited. • Loop resistance restricts the length of operation. • Copper is a costlier material. • Its installation is time consuming. • In it more number of repeaters are required. • Its maintaince is difficult. • Stray effect (outside effect)
ADVANTAGESOF OFC • More bandwidth-1000 times of copper • Low loss-0.4 db per km • Immunity to EM waves and crosstalk • Greater saftey-no electric hazards • No stray effect-em waves cannot disturb light • Small size and easy to handle. • Less no of repeaters required. • less temprature sensitive-800 c leaves glass fibre unaffected.
SPECIFICATION OF OFC • Core8-10 microns (single mode); 5-100 microns (multimode) • Cladding 125 microns (overall diameter) • Attenuation better than .4 db/km • Primary coating250 microns UV cured acrylyte • Secondry coating2.4mm nylon PE jelly filled tube • Central strength number fibre reinforced plastic(FRP) • Moisture barriernon metallic polythene sheeth free from pin holes
125 microns 8-10 microns
TYPES OF OPTICAL FIBER • SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBER • MULTI MODE OPTICAL FIBER
SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBER • A much smaller core diameter. • The core diais 8-10 micrometer. • A Cladding dia is 125 micrometer. • Very large bandwidth. • Light can go for long distansces.
MULTIMODE OPTICAL FIBER • Has a large core diameter. • Core diameter 50,62.5,100 micrometer. • A cladding diameter-125 micrometer. • Light waves are dispersed into number of paths . • Multiple path of light cause signal distortion. • Suitable for shorter length like LAN.
LIGHT SOURCES • LED –made from the material such as AlGaAs,light is emitted when electrons and hole recombine ,either surface emitting or edge emitting . LIGHT DETECTORS • PIN DIODE –photons are absorbed in the intrinsic lyer sufficient energy is added to generate carriers in the depltion layer for current to flow through the diodes. • AVALANCHE PHOTODIODE
OFC SIZES • 6 FIBER • 12 FIBER • 24 FIBER • 48 FIBER • 96 FIBER Standard drum length is 2000m+10% 4000m+10%
OFC LAYING • PULLING METHOD • OFC PULLING • BLOWING METHOD
BROADBAND TECHNOLOGIES WIRED LINE WIRELESS
WIRED LINE • DSC (DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE) • PSC (POWER LINE COMMUNICATION) WIRELESS • 3G • WIFI (WIRELESS FIEDILITY) • FSO • SATELLITE COMMUNICATION
FTTH (FIBER TO HOME TECHNOLOGY) • FIBER IS 23 TIMES LIGHTER THAN CU CABLE AND 36 TIMES LESS IN CROSS SECTIONAL AREA • FIBER IN LOOP CAN BE DEVELOPED IN SEVERAL CONFUGIRATIONS
WHY FTTH? • Aging copper cable plants • High speed broadband 256 kbps-100 mbps • IP tv having different tyoe of contact like HD tv and future coming 3D tv SERVICES • High speed internet • Online gaming • Video calls • And many more……..
This Presentation is prepared by- • PRATYUSH SHRIVASTAVA(Group Leader) • RAKESH PATEL • AAKANSHA GUPTA • ADITI SHUKLA • RANJAN KUMAR KASHYAP