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Semester 1, Chapter 10 (Supplement). Creating Subnets or How to Have Fun Without Knowing It!. Why create subnets?. Organization Smaller Router Tables Minimize collision domains Minimize broadcast domains. Why create a subnet mask?.

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semester 1 chapter 10 supplement

Semester 1, Chapter 10(Supplement)

Creating Subnets

or

How to Have Fun Without Knowing It!

why create subnets
Why create subnets?
  • Organization
  • Smaller Router Tables
  • Minimize collision domains
  • Minimize broadcast domains
why create a subnet mask
Why create a subnet mask?
  • Tells device which part of an address is the network # including the subnet and which part is the host
  • Filters the node IP address to determine which subnet it belongs to
  • NETWORK/SUBNET/HOST
how to create subnets
How to Create Subnets

27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 128

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 192

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 224

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 240

1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 248

1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 252

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 254

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 255

address classes
Address Classes

If the first octet is between

  • 1-126 it is a Class A address
  • 128-191 it is a Class B address
  • 192-223 it is a Class C address
  • 224-239 it is a Class D address
  • 240-255 it is a Class E address

127 is reserved for loopback and is used for internal testing on the local machine

slide6
The class determines which part of the address belongs to the network and which part belongs to the host

Class A

NNNNNNNN.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh

Class B

NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh

Class C

NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.hhhhhhhh

subnets and subnet mask
Subnets and Subnet Mask
  • Create another section in the IP address called the subnet
  • NETWORK/SUBNET/HOST
  • Use a subnet mask!
ip subnet addressing default subnet masks
In Binary Form

Class A

11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000

Class B

11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000

Class C

11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

Class A -

255.0.0.0

Class B - 255.255.0.0

Class C - 255.255.255.0

IP Subnet addressing default subnet masks
restrictions on subnets
Restrictions on subnets
  • Network addresses of all 0’s in the host portion are reserved for specifying the network
  • Network addresses of all 1’s in the host portions are reserved for the broadcast address
example 192 56 32 13
Example 192.56.32.13
  • What class is the address?
  • C
  • What is the network address?
  • 192.56.32.0
  • What is the broadcast address?
  • 192.56.32.255
  • What is the default subnet mask?
  • 255.255.255.0
192 56 32 13
192.56.32.13
  • 192.56.32.0 is the network address
  • 8 bits are available for the host address
  • Borrow 1 bit
  • NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.Shhhhhhh
  • What is the subnet mask?
  • 27 = 128
  • 255.255.255.128
177 56 45 13
177.56.45.13
  • What class is this address?
  • Class B
  • What is the default subnet mask?
  • 255.255.0.0
  • Borrow 2 bits for the subnet mask
  • NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.SShhhhhh.hhhhhhhh
  • What is the subnet mask?
  • 27+26 = 128+64 = 192
  • 255.255.192.0
total number of subnets
Total Number of Subnets

Number of subnets = 2 number of bits borrowed

Maximum (borrow all bits)

  • Class A 224 = 16,777,216

3 Octets available

  • Class B 216 = 65,536

2 Octets available

  • Class C 28 = 256

1 Octet available

196 54 34 22
196.54.34.22
  • Borrow 2 bits for the subnet mask
  • Number of subnets - 2 number of bits borrowed
  • 22 = 4 subnets
  • Number of hosts per subnet =
  • 2 # host bits - # bits borrowed = 2 8-2
  • 26 = 64 (also called the range)
196 54 34 2215
196.54.34.22
  • Borrowing 2 bits results in 4 subnets (22) and 64 hosts per subnet (26)
  • NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.SShhhhhh
  • Lets just look at the last Octet SShhhhhh
  • Count to 4 in binary (use 2 digits) or all combinations of 0 & 1 using 2 digits
  • 00 (first subnet)
  • 01 (second subnet)
  • 10 (third subnet)
  • 11 (fourth subnet)