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long term impact of a vaccine on a population a high risk of pneumococcal disease

Long-term impact of a vaccine on a population a high risk of pneumococcal disease

A double-blinded, controlled study of the efficacy, immunogenicity, safety and tolerability, and effectiveness of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine containing seven serotypes (6B, 14, 19F, 23F, 18C, 4 and 9V) compared to a control meningococcal c vaccine in Navajo and Apache Indian infants. (NNR.97.18)

who are we
Who are we?

Johns Hopkins Center for American Indian Health

Baltimore:

Coordinating Center

White Mountain

Apache Reservation:

Field Sites

Navajo Nation:

Field Sites

what is a pneumococcus
What is a pneumococcus?
  • A bacteria
  • More than 90 types of pneumococcus
  • Can cause serious disease
  • Most diseases caused by only a few types
  • Disease is more common during the winter months
  • Types of pneumococcus that cause disease in one population or location may be different from types causing disease in another population or location

pneumococcus

slide5

Meninges

Sinus

Enters via nose

Ear drum

Lung

BloodVessel

Bone

How does pneumococcus get into the body and cause disease?

Lung

what diseases are caused by pneumococcus
What diseases are caused by pneumococcus?

Ear infections

Pneumonia

Meningitis

Infections of the blood

where in the world is pneumococcal disease a problem
Where in the world is pneumococcal disease a problem?

Rates of pneumococcal disease among children less than 2 years of age

Rates are

3-10 fold those of

in general US

how can pneumococcal disease be prevented
How can pneumococcal disease be prevented?

**By giving our children life saving vaccines…

…but first we have to make sure they are safe and prevent disease

some information about the pneumococcal vaccine
Some information about the pneumococcal vaccine
  • Official name: 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
  • Nickname: PCV7
  • Prevents disease caused by the 7 most common types of pneumococcus  called “vaccine-types”

refrigerator stocked with vaccine

how was the pneumococcal vaccine study conducted
How was the pneumococcal vaccine study conducted?
  • Study conducted from 1997-2000 to find out if a new vaccine can prevent pneumococcal disease
  • 8,292 Navajo and White Mountain Apache babies enrolled
how was the pneumococcal vaccine study conducted1
How was the pneumococcal vaccine study conducted?
  • Approvals were obtained from the Navajo and White Mountain Apache Tribes
how was the pneumococcal vaccine study conducted2
How was the pneumococcal vaccine study conducted?
  • Families gave permission for their baby to participate in the vaccine study.
how was the pneumococcal vaccine study conducted3
How was the pneumococcal vaccine study conducted?
  • Blood specimens collected from babies to measure if the vaccine was present in the body.
how was the pneumococcal vaccine study conducted4
How was the pneumococcal vaccine study conducted?
  • Babies followed throughout the study to see if they remained healthy.
how was the pneumococcal vaccine study conducted5
How was the pneumococcal vaccine study conducted?
  • Data entered into electronic database and analyzed to produce study results.
slide20
What were the PCV7 vaccine trial results?Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease among Navajo children <5y
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Participants from the Navajo and White Mountain Apache tribes
  • Community members who supported these studies
  • Nurses and research program assistants
  • IRBs of the Navajo Nation, Phoenix Area IHS, and Johns Hopkins School of Public Health
  • Indian Health Service collaboration and support