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Location-Based Services. Henning Schulzrinne Columbia University. Overview. Time + space Getting location information Using location information Privacy issues. Getting location information. Universal anywhere in the world independent of network connectivity Non-proprietary

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location based services
Location-Based Services
  • Henning Schulzrinne
  • Columbia University
overview
Overview
  • Time + space
  • Getting location information
  • Using location information
  • Privacy issues
getting location information
Getting location information
  • Universal
    • anywhere in the world
    • independent of network connectivity
  • Non-proprietary
  • Energy efficient
  • Accurate to 10 m/room level

doesn’t exist in one system

location based services6
traffic management

people & vehicle tracking

car park assistance

mobile yellow pages

travel & tourist guides

instant messaging

customer relationship

banners & alerts

automotive assistance

emergency calls

location-aware call handling

fleet (scheduling)

Information

Tracking

Management

Emergency

Billing

Advertising

buddy finder

environmental

security

mobile games

indoor routing

travel planner

directions

geocaching

road tolling

Navigation

shopping guides

product tracking

facility

Leisure

Communications

Games

Infrastructure

location-based services

Location-based services

Foundations of Location-based Services (Steinger, Neun, Edwardes), modified)

6

location based services7
Location-based services
  • Finding services based on location
    • physical services (stores, restaurants, ATMs, ...)
    • electronic services (hot spots, printers, ...)
  • Using location to improve (network) services
    • incoming or outgoing communications adapts to location
  • Using location to provide information
    • tourist guides
    • advertisements
  • Making others aware of user location
    • presence (individual)
    • popularity, movement (group)
  • Security
    • grant access based on user’s location
location based voip services
Location-based VoIP services
  • Location-aware inbound routing
    • do not forward call if time at callee location is [11 pm, 8 am]
    • only forward time-for-lunch if destination is on campus
    • do not ring phone if I’m in a theater
  • outbound call routing
  • location-based events
    • subscribe to locations, not people
    • Alice has entered the meeting room
    • subscriber may be device in room

8

location based security
Location-based security
  • Examples:
    • Garmin GPS unlocks at home
    • Only allow person in room to control conference room equipment via web browser
    • Restrict access to bank account based on user’s location
      • IP-address based (MaxMind, ...)
  • Need certified location
modes of emergency communications
Modes of emergency communications

emergency call

information

“I-am-alive”

dispatch

emergency alert

(“inverse 911”)

civic coordination

10

components of ng911 system
Components of NG911 system

LoST

(public)

LoST

(private)

PSAP

ESN

(county, state, …)

PSAP

Internet

11

lost location to url mapping
cluster

serves VSP2

Bergen County

NJ US

Leonia

NJ US

NJ

US

NY

US

LoST: Location-to-URL Mapping

VSP1

cluster serving VSP1

replicate

root information

123 Broad Ave

Leonia

Bergen County

NJ US

LoST

root

nodes

search

referral

sip:[email protected]

12

lost architecture
G

G

G

G

G

resolver

T3

(.dk)

(.dk)

T1

(.us)

T2

(.de)

LoST Architecture

tree guide

broadcast (gossip)

T1: .us

T2: .de

seeker

313 Westview

Leonia, NJ US

Leonia, NJ  sip:[email protected]

13

lost find service response warning example
LoST “Find Service” response/warning example

München Polizei-Abteilung

urn:service:sos.police

Germany

BavariaMunich81675

sip:[email protected]

110

15

citysense com
Citysense.com

See the city in true realtime: how busy is the city & where is everyone going, right now?Red: all anonymous destination activity Green: only unusual destination activity

Press “1” to see the #1 hottest destination, then “1” again to see the restaurants and bars there, etc.

Now available in San Francisco, more cities rolling out in beta version.

Aggregate GPS information

minimum volume embedding
Minimum Volume Embedding

Machine learning algorithm that determines behavior and clusters from anonymous

aggregate movement from all pairs of corners in the city.

Obtains behavioral map of city (vs. geographical map)

Work

Restaurants

Nightlife

Residential

platforms
Platforms

missing location

missing network

connectivity

time zone

missing navigation

BlueTooth? ZigBee?

ietf geopriv and simple architectures
rule

maker

location

server

presence

agent

location

recipient

target

watcher

presentity

IETF GEOPRIV and SIMPLE architectures

DHCP

XCAP

(rules)

notification

interface

publication

interface

GEOPRIV

SUBSCRIBE

SIP

presence

PUBLISH

privacy issues
Privacy issues
  • Not all LBS are privacy-sensitive
    • “where is the the M125 bus?”
    • navigation with GPS
  • Problem: location + personal identity
    • or derivable (e.g., via home location)
privacy threats
Privacy threats

reveal device anonymously

(e.g., “nearest gas station”)

reveal identity + location to LBS

(friend finder service)

Privacy

reveal to individual

(friend, other)

presence and privacy pidf lo
Presence and privacy: PIDF-LO

37:46:30N 122:25:10W

no

2003-06-23T04:57:29Z

2003-06-22T20:57:29Z

  • All presence data, particularly location, is highly sensitive
  • Basic location object (PIDF-LO) describes
    • distribution (binary)
    • retention duration
  • Policy rules for more detailed access control
    • who can subscribe to my presence
    • who can see what when

22

geopriv privacy rules
GEOPRIV privacy rules
  • User gets maximum of permissions across all matching rules
  • privacy-safe composition: removal of a rule can only reduce privileges
  • Extendable to new presence data
  • rich presence
  • biological sensors
  • mood sensors
  • Conditions
    • identity, sphere
    • time of day
    • current location
    • identity as or +
  • Actions
    • watcher confirmation
  • Transformations
    • include information
    • reduced accuracy
      • e.g., only within 5 mile radius

23

open technical and standards issues
Open technical and standards issues
  • Universal APIs
    • As simple as gettimeofday()
    • Not specific to method or vendor
  • Crowd-sourcing
  • Integration between presence and location
    • presence as universal third party interface?
  • Clear privacy rules
    • both technical and legal
deployment issues
Deployment issues
  • ISPs need to make location available to their customers
    • for in-door use
    • location as a chargeable service?
  • LAN-based location for room-level location
    • APs and ports
    • enterprise
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Location as fundamental service building block → time & space
  • Improve user experience
    • from navigation and locating services
    • to automatic silent mode
  • Need network protocols for
    • conveying location
    • mapping location to services
    • describing privacy requirements
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