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16 th October. Enzymes. Learning objective : to examine what enzymes are and describe how they work. What are they?. Enzymes. Why do we need them?. Name some examples ?. Enzymes. Globular proteins that catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms. Properties. Enzymes.

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slide1

16th October

Enzymes

Learning objective: to examine what enzymes are and

describe how they work.

slide2

What are they?

Enzymes

Why do we need them?

Name some examples ?

slide3

Enzymes

Globular proteins that catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms

Properties

slide4

Enzymes

Globular proteins that catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms

Specific

Properties

slide5

Enzymes

Globular proteins that catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms

Specific

Properties

Increase rate of the reaction

slide6

Enzymes

Globular proteins that catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms

Specific

Properties

Increase rate of the reaction

Unchanged at the end of the reaction

slide7

Enzymes

Globular proteins that catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms

Specific

Properties

Increase rate of the reaction

Unchanged at the end of the reaction

Need them

slide8

Enzymes

Globular proteins that catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms

Specific

Properties

Increase rate of the reaction

Unchanged at the end of the reaction

Reactions too slow to maintain life

Need them

Can’t increase temperatures/pressure in cells (fatal)

slide9

Enzymes Are Proteins

The enzyme binds to the substrates by its active site

The active site is a pocket formed by the folding of the protein

where the substrates bind.

slide10

Enzymes Are Proteins

The enzyme binds to the substrates by its active site

The active site is a pocket formed by the folding of the protein

where the substrates bind.

slide11

Active site

The active site involves a small number of key residues that actually bind the

substrates

The rest of the protein structure is needed to maintain these residues in position

slide14

An Example

Sucrose + H2O

Glucose + Fructose

slide15

An Example

Substrates

Sucrose + H2O

Glucose + Fructose

Products

slide16

For a reaction to occur the sucrose

and water would have to collide with

enough energy to break and form bonds

slide17

For a reaction to occur the sucrose

and water would have to collide with

enough energy to break and form bonds

This is the activation energy

slide18

Sucrose + H2O

Glucose + Fructose

+

+

Substrates

Products

slide19

Energy

Progress of reaction

slide20

Energy

Substrates

Progress of reaction

slide21

Energy

Substrates

Products

Progress of reaction

slide22

High energy

intermediate

Energy

Substrates

Products

Progress of reaction

slide23

High energy

intermediate

Activation energy

Energy

Substrates

Products

Progress of reaction

slide24

The minimum amount of energy needed to start the reaction, leading to the formation of a high energy intermediate

= The Activation energy

slide25

High energy

intermediate

Activation energy

Enzymes reduce the

height of the energy

barrier

Energy

Substrates

Products

Progress of reaction

slide26

Questions

Read page 57-60

  • Write a definition for the following: Active Site
  • Substrate
  • Products
  • 2. Explain how the structure of the protein is linked to its ability to act
  • as an enzyme?
  • 3. How does heating a mixture increase the chance that a chemical reaction
  • Will occur? Why can’t this approach be used in cells?
  • 4. Write a paragraph in your own words describing how enzymes act as
  • catalysts by lowering activation energy.
slide27

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