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HERSTORY: . VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND THEIR CHILDREN. MARXIST FEMINISM (Origins of Women’s Oppression). By Rosalinda Pineda- Ofreneo. FAMILY , PRIVATE PROPERTY AND THE STATE.

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    1. HERSTORY: VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND THEIR CHILDREN Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    2. MARXIST FEMINISM (Origins of Women’s Oppression) By Rosalinda Pineda-Ofreneo FAMILY, PRIVATE PROPERTY AND THE STATE • Before, women enjoyed “mother right” or the right to pass on wealth to their children in the earlier forms of marriage when women and men could have more than one sexual partner. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    3. FAMILY, PRIVATE PROPERTY AND THE STATE • However, with the domestication of animals and the development of agriculture, metallurgy, and handicrafts, production increasedandresulted in surplus. • Surplus  hands of a few males  private property  monogamous families  subordination of women Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    4. FAMILY, PRIVATE PROPERTY AND THE STATE With enforced monogamy for women: • paternity was made certain thus enabling men to pass on their wealth to their children. • “mother right” was overthrown • deprived of property they soon became disempowered As wealth increased it made: • Historic defeat of the female sex • the man’s position in the family more important than the woman’s • created an impulse to exploit this strengthened position in order to overthrow in favor of his children, the traditional order of inheritance Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    5. RADICAL FEMINISM (Origins of Women’s Oppression) • BIOLOGY IS DESTINY • Because of their anatomy, women became dependent to men. • Only women have wombs and the mammary glands (+)humans have a long period of dependency  women have to stay home and do unpaid work  makes them dependent to men who have independent incomes which they use for subordinating women and their children Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    6. BIOLOGY IS DESTINY • Because of their anatomy, are destined to lord it over women. • They have penis which enables them to penetrate women and frighten them into submission. • Man discovered that his genital could serve as a weapon to generate fear  caused the creation of male ideology of rape  when men discovered that they could rape, they proceeded to do it  rape become not only a male prerogative, but man’s basic weapon of force against women Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    7. SUBORDINATION OF WOMEN AS A RESULT OF THEIR ABILITY TO ENACT GENESIS • Because they have wombs women can give birth to life while men cannot  men’s womb envy  men were forced to dominate women  made them cultivate the idea that woman’s relation to man is like the relation of nature to culture  They need men to tame them and men can use them freely as they would use natural sources like air and water that abounds nature Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    8. fromVivian Fox’s Historical Perspectives on Violence Against Women WESTERN VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN • Three great bodies of thought have influenced western society’s views and treatment of women: Judeo-Christian religious ideas, Greek philosophy and the Common Law legal code. • All three traditions have assumed patriarchy as natural – that is male domination stemming from the view of male superiority  violence towards women was seen as a natural expression of male dominance. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    9. For most of western history, hierarchy of gender was one of the predominant methods of ordering society. Emergence of a Patriarchal Paradigm • For most of western history, hierarchy of gender was one of the predominant methods of ordering society. Gerda Lerner: “working hypothesis”  establishment of patriarchy with the rise of militarism • Then the victorious, usually a small group of male warriors, asserted their dominance over those whom they conquered, consolidating their power through institutions which justified their superiority  “patriarchal privilege” that justified superiority of the victorious men over women. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    10. For most of western history, hierarchy of gender was one of the predominant methods of ordering society. Emergence of a Patriarchal Paradigm • Inferior to the victorious males and were, as defeated enemy, identified as deviant. violence and subjugation of deviants would be necessary to maintain a well-ordered society. • Since women constituted an important part of the newly conquered deviant group, and were more easily subdued because of their inferior physical strength and nurturing tasks, they were given the opportunity to protect themselves and their offspring by participating in a “patriarchal bargain” Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    11. Judeo-Christian religious ideas • One of the earliest and most significant of the patriarchal systems was the Hebrews • For the Hebrews created a theology, passed on in western tradition, which proclaimed God to be alone, “eternal, omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient, just, good, compassionate, merciful and benevolent” and masculine as his two names, Yahweh and Elohim were revealed to all HIS children. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    12. Judeo-Christian religious ideas • The naming of male’s female helpmate, whom Adam called Eve  some complications arose in regard to the original status of the first male and female. • Also, the depiction of Eve as temptress, who seduced Adam into sharing the forbidden fruit. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    13. Greek Philosophy • The Greeks asserted that humans were the most perfect animals and that among humans, men were more perfect than women were since they were hot and women were cold. • Since women were cooler, their organs were unable to protrude, and thus remained internal, whereas the heat of men thrust the organs outside. • In fact, it was argued that conception could only occur with the increase of female heat, which required male stimulation of the female, until orgasm. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    14. Common Legal Code • The common law allowed a husband to legally control his wife’s real property, as well as her personal property acquired during marriage, such as clothes, jewelry or wages. • The wife, on the other hand, had no right of veto over her husband’s decisions, including those related to her property, nor could she with impunity verbally argue with him; if she tried, she would be regarded as a “scold” and punished. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    15. For most of western history, hierarchy of gender was one of the predominant methods of ordering society. Summary • Most of the history of state societies women have been made subordinate to men. In order to achieve and maintain subordination of the female, ideologies have been constructed whereby submissions to patriarchy appear in the nature of things. Ordained by the Gods, supported by the priests, implemented by the law, women came to accept and to psychologically internalize compliance as necessary. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    16. Effects of Violence in Women Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    17. Violence Against Women Violence affects the lives of millions of women worldwide, in all socio-economic and educational classes. It cuts across cultural and religious barriers, impeding the right of women to participate fully in society. Violence against women takes a dismaying variety of forms, from domestic abuse and rape to child marriages and female circumcision. All are violations of the most fundamental human rights. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    18. Violence Against Women Some females fall prey to violence before they are born, when expectant parents abort their unborn daughters, hoping for sons instead. In other societies, girls are subjected to such traditional practices as circumcision, which leave them maimed and traumatized. In others, they are compelled to marry at an early age, before they are physically, mentally or emotionally mature. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    19. Violence Against Women Violence against women and girls continues to be a global epidemic that kills, tortures, and maims – physically, psychologically, sexually and economically. It is one of the most pervasive of human rights violations, denying women and girl’s equality, security, dignity, self-worth, and their right to enjoy fundamental freedoms. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    20. Physiological Effects • Injury (from lacerations to fractures and internal organs injury. • Unwanted pregnancy and pregnancy complications • Gynecological problems • Chronic physical health problems • Permanent disabilities • Increased vulnerability to negative health outcomes • Murder of women • Female infanticide • Prenatal sex selection Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    21. Psychological Effects • Depression • Low level of self-esteem • Feelings of control and learned helplessness • Emotional torture with mental stress leading to a high incidence of suicide and suicide attempts. • Eating disorders • Post-traumatic disorder • Fear and anxiety Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    22. Contemporary Issues Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    23. HarmfulTraditional Practices • Forms of violence that have been committed against women in certain communities and societies for so long that they are considered part of accepted cultural practice Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    24. FemaleGenital Mutilation • Refers to several types of deeply-rootedtraditionalcuttingoperationsperformed on women and girls. • Often part of fertility or coming-of-age rituals, FGM is justified as a way to ensure chastity and genital “purity.” • More than 130 million girls and women alive today have undergone FGM, mainly in Africa and some Middle Eastern countries and two million girls a year are at risk of mutilation. • Cases of FGM have been reported in Asian countries such as India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Sri Lanka, and it is thought to be performed among some indigenous groups in Central and South America • Practiced among immigrant communities in Europe, North America and Australia Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    25. DowryMurders • brutal practice involving a woman being killed by her husband or in-laws because her family is unable to meet their demands for her dowry — a payment made to a woman’s in-laws upon her engagement or marriage as a gift to her new family. • Small community studies have indicated that dowry demands have played an important role in women being burned to death and in deaths of women being labeled suicides. • In Bangladesh, there have been many incidents of acid attacks due to dowry disputes, leading often to blindness, disfigurement, and death. • In 2002, 315 women and girls in Bangladesh were victims of acid attacks; in 2005 that number was 267 • It is not uncommon for dowries to exceed a family’s annual income. • occurs predominantly in South Asia. • In India, 6,822 women were killed in 2002 as a result of such violence. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    26. HonorKillings • The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) • estimates that the annual world-wide number of “honour killing” victims may be as high as 5000 women • UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women 2002 • “honour killings” take place in Pakistan, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Egypt, Lebanon, Iran, Yemen, Morocco and other Mediterranean and Gulf countries.  • In many societies, rape victims, women suspected of engaging in premarital sex, and women accused of adultery are murdered by their relatives because the violation of a woman’s chastity is viewed as an affront to the family’s honour. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    27. HonorKillings • 4,000 women and men were killed in Pakistan in the name of honour between 1998 and 2003, the number of women being more than double the number of men. • In Alexandria, Egypt, 47 percent of the women were killed by a relative after the woman had been raped. • In Jordan and Lebanon, 70 to 75 percent of the perpetrators of these so-called “honour killings” are the women’s brothers • Occurs in countries such as Germany, France and the United Kingdom within immigrant communities. • It is not only in Islamic countries or communities that this act of violence is prevalent. • Brazil is cited as a case in point, where killing is justified to defend the honour of the husband in the case of a wife’s adultery Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    28. EarlyMarriage • Prevalent throughout the world, especially in Africa and South Asia. • a form of sexual violence, since young girls are often forced into the marriage and into sexual relations, which jeopardizes their health, raises their risk of exposure to HIV/AIDS and limits their chance of attending school. • Insecurity, conflict and societal crises also support early marriage. • In many African countries experiencing conflict, where there is a high possibility of young girls being kidnapped, marrying them off at an early age is viewed as a way to secure their protection • UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women 2006 • an estimated 57 percent of girls in Afghanistan are married before the age of 16. • Due to “bride money,” the girl child becomes an asset exchangeable for money or goods. Families see committing a young daughter (or sister) to a family that is able to pay a high price for the bride as a viable solution to their poverty and indebtedness. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    29. HumanTrafficking • Involves the recruitment and transportation of persons, using deception, coercion and threats in order to place and keep them in a situation of forced labour, slavery or servitude. • Estimates of the number of trafficked persons range from 500,000 to two million per year, and a few organizations have estimated that up to four million persons are trafficked every year. • Persons are trafficked into a variety of sectors of the informal economy, including: Prostitution Domestic work Agriculture The garment industry Street begging. • Trafficking is often connected to organized crime and has developed into a highly profitable business that generates an estimated US$7-12 billion per year Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    30. HumanTrafficking • Trafficking is in most cases a trans-border crime that affects all regions of the world • 2006 UN global report on trafficking, 127 countries have been documented as countries of origin, and 137 as countries of destination. • Main countries of origin: Central and South-Eastern Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and Asia, followed by West Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. • The most commonly reported countries of destination are in Western Europe, Asia and Northern America • Gender-based discrimination increase the risk of women and girls becoming affected by poverty, which in turns puts them at higher risk of becoming targeted by traffickers, who use false promises of jobs and educational opportunities to recruit their victims. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    31. Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence • Includes physical and sexual attacks against women in the home, within the family or within an intimate relationship. • There is no place in the world that a woman is safe • The World Health Organization (WHO) surveyed more than 50% of women in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Peru, and Tanzania Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    32. Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence • In these countries, there are high incidences of physical or sexual violence by intimate partners --- in fact, 71% in rural Ethiopia • Also, in several surveys from around the world, half of the women who die from homicides are killed by their current or former husbands/partners. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    33. Sexual Violence • Next in line for violence experienced globally • It is violence by a relative, friend, acquaintance, neighbour, work colleague or stranger. • Unlike domestic violence, statistics are difficult to establish because in many societies, sexual violence remains an issue of deep shame for both the victims and their families Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    34. Sexual Violence • It has been estimated that one in five women will become a victim of rape or attempted rape in her lifetime. • In many societies, the legal system and community attitudes add to the trauma that rape survivors experience. • Women are often held responsible for the violence against them, and in many places, laws contain loopholes which allow the perpetrators to act with impunity. In a number of countries, a rapist can go free under the Penal Code if he proposes to marry the victim. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    35. HIV/AIDS and Violence • High prevalence of HIV/AIDS is closely linked to women’s inability to negotiate safe sex and refuse unwanted sex • Unwanted sex – from being unable to say “no!” to a partner and be heard, to sexual assault such as rape—results in a higher risk of abrasion and bleeding  from which, easier transmission of the virus • Violence – also a consequence of HIV/AIDS: for many women, the fear of violence prevents them from declaring their HIV-positive status and seeking help and treatment Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    36. Violence againstWomen as a HumanRights Violation • 2006 – Secretary-General’s In-Depth Study confirmed that violence against women (whether at home, work or anywhere else) is a particularly offensive HR violation that must be eradicated. • The 1981 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) does not explicitly mention ‘violence against women’. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    37. Violence againstWomen as a HumanRights Violation • The Committee to Eliminate Discrimination Against Women  responsible for interpreting and monitoring the implementation of CEDAW has clarified in its General Recommendation No. 19 (1992) that State Parties to the Convention are under obligation to take all appropriate means to eliminate violence against women. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    38. Rate of Violence Against Women Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    39. Industrialized Countries • Canada • 29% of women (a nationally representative sample of 12,300 women) reported being physically assaulted by a current or former • partner since the age of 16. • Japan • 59% of 796 women surveyed in 1993 reported being physically abused by their partner. • New Zealand • 20% of 314 women surveyed reported being hit or physically abused by a male partner. • Switzerland • 20% of 1,500 women reported being physically assaulted according to a 1997 survey. • United Kingdom • 25% of women (a random sample of women from one district) had been punched or slapped by a partner or ex-partner in their lifetime. • United States • 28% of women (a nationally representative sample of women) reported at least one episode of physical violence from their partner. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    40. Cambodia • 16% of women (a nationally representative sample of women) reported being physically abused by a spouse; 8% report being injured. • India • Up to 45% of married men acknowledged physically abusing their wives, according to a 1996 survey of 6,902 men in the state of • Korea • 38% of wives reported being physically abused by their spouse, based on a survey of a random sample of women. • Thailand • 20% of husbands (a representative sample of 619 husbands) acknowledged physically abusing their wives at least once in their marriage. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    41. MiddleEast • Egypt • 35% of women (a nationally representative sample of women) reported being beaten by their husband at some point in their marriage. • Israel • 32% of women reported at least one episode of physical abuse by their partner and 30% report sexual coercion by their husbands in • the previous year, according to a 1997 survey of 1,826 Arab women. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    42. Africa • Kenya • 42% of 612 women surveyed in one district reported having been beaten by a partner; of those 58% reported that they were beaten • often or sometimes. • Uganda • 41% of women reported being beaten or physically harmed by a partner; 41% of men reported beating their partner (representative • sample of women and their partners in two districts). • Zimbabwe • 32% of 966 women in one province reported physical abuse by a family or household member since the age of 16, according to a • 1996 survey. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    43. Latin America &the Caribbean • Chile • 26% of women (representative sample of women from Santiago) reported at least one episode of violence by a partner, 11% • reported at least one episode of severe violence and 15% of women reported at least one episode of less severe violence. • Colombia • 19% of 6,097 women surveyed have been physically assaulted by their partner in their lifetime. • Mexico • 30% of 650 women surveyed in Guadalajara reported at least one episode of physical violence by a partner; 13% reported physical • violence within the previous year, according to a 1997 report. • Nicaragua • 52% of women (representative sample of women in León) reported being physically abused by a partner at least once; 27% reported • physical abuse in the previous year, according to a 1996 report. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    44. Central &Eastern Europe/Baltic States • Estonia • 29% of women aged 18-24 fear domestic violence, and the share rises with age, affecting 52% of women 65 or older, according to • a 1994 survey of 2,315 women. • Poland • 60% of divorced women surveyed in 1993 by the Centre for the Examination of Public Opinion reported having been hit at least • once by their ex-husbands; an additional 25% reported repeated violence. • Russia (St. Petersburg) • 25% of girls (and 11% of boys) reported unwanted sexual contact, according to a survey of 174 boys and 172 girls in grade 10 (aged 14-17). • Tajikistan • 23% of 550 women aged 18-40 reported physical abuse, according to a survey. • (Adapted from “Violence Against Women,” WHO, FRH/WHD/97.8, “Women in Transition,” Regional Monitoring Report, UNICEF 1999, and a study by Domestic Violence Research Centre, Japan. Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    45. The Laws on Violence Against Women in the Philippines Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    46. Reforms in Laws due to democratic space • 1986 People Power Revolution toppled the 14 year Martial Law dictatorship • 1987 Constitution • 1988 Elections of House of Representatives, Senators and local government officials Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    47. Before 1995 • Gender based violence was not recognized in Philippine laws. • Revised Penal Code covered offenses committed against women, • e.g :physical injuries, rape, acts of lasciviousness, seduction, parricide, homicide, murder Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    48. Civil Law • Had discriminatory provisions on women, treated as subordinate to husbands • Could not accept gifts from men other than their husbands without their consent • Husband had sole administration of the conjugal partnership Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    49. 1987 CONSTITUTION: State Policies • Sec. 2 “adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land (CEDAW, CRC, other Conventions) • Full respect for human rights • Sec. 14. “fundamental equality before the law of women and men” Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel

    50. 1987 Constitution • Sec. 14 The State shall protect • working women by providing safe and • healthful working conditions Chua | Lee | Mercado | Ishihara | Belando | Perez | Aranza | Oriel